A Snapshot of the Global Youth Movement

1. Introduction
2. Non-Religious, Well Established, Mainstream Youth Movements and Institutions
	2.1 The Big 7
	2.2 Other Mainstream Movements
	2.3 Mainstream Collaborative Initiatives
	2.4 Mainstream Development and Education Institutions
3. Annual Camps and/or Events
4. Employment, Economy, and Youth
5. Corporations and International Sports Federations with Global Youth Support 
6. Inter-Governmental Bodies
	6.1 UN and UN Agencies
	6.2 English, French, Spanish and Arabic Speaking Networks
	6.3 Other Intergovernmental Agencies
7. Internet Portals
	7.1 Youth-Led Sites
	7.2 UN Sites
	7.3 Other Sites
8. Global Political Youth Networks
	8.1 Socialist and Communist Youth Networks
	8.2 Other Spectrums of the Politics
9. Research and Policy Focused
10. Service Programs
11. Student Focused Groups and Exchange Programs
	11.1 Groups with an Online Focus
	11.2 Teenager Focused Groups
	11.3 University Groups
12. Travel
13. Theme, Kinship, Advocacy and Issue Focused Groups
	13.1 HIV/AIDS
	13.2 Sexual Rights and Reproductive Health
	13.3 Defending Children and Youth Rights
	13.4 Youth with Disabilities
	13.5 Peace Education, Disarmament, Violence Prevention and Anti-Racism Work
	13.6 Environment, Sustainable Development and Resource Conservation
	13.7 Indigenous Youth
	13.8 Cultural Youth Movements
	13.9 Youth, Communication and Media Networks and Training Groups
	13.10 Other Theme and Issue Focused Youth Groups
14. General Networking and Facilitation
15. Youth Groups and Networks focused on Youth Participation in Decision-Making 
    and Activism
	15.1 Supporting Youth Activism
	15.2 Youth-Led Groups with Focus on Youth Participation in the United Nations 
	     and its World Conferences
	15.3 Youth Participation in Global Decision-Making and/or Events Outside the 
	     UN System
16. Religious and Spiritual Groups
	16.1 Christianity
		16.1.1 Catholics
		16.1.2 Other Christian Groups
	16.2 Islam
	16.3 Judaism
	16.4 Others
17. Other Movements That Do Not Have Youth Projects, But That Are Often Youth-Led
18. Other Links
19. Major Global Youth Email Communication Networks
20. Regional Youth Platforms Before the United Nations
21. Regional Student Unions

Copyright (C) 2002 Jonah Wittkamper

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1. Introduction

This report links is perhaps the most comprehensive listing of International Youth Movements and International Youth Organizations (with websites) in the world. It was pieced together in collaboration with many people and many networks. It is restricted to movements and organizations that have activities (or relationships) on three or more continents, with very few exceptions. Much of the content was written from our first hand experience within the organizations and movements. Much of it was also provided by the organizations and movements themselves.

Motivation to create this guide came from the challenges experienced by the Global Youth ACTION Network and TakingITGlobal in organizing local youth networks in diverse cities around the world.

This document should be used in collaboration with other resources to educate young people and facilitate collaboration among movements.

The Global Youth ACTION Network is taking steps to organize World Youth Forums in partnership with all the organizations and movements listed here. The forums will take place virtually, locally, regionally, and internationally.

For more information contact Jonah Wittkamper at jonah@youthlink.org or subscribe to the follow Yahoo Group:
2. Non-Religious, Well Established, Mainstream Youth Movements and Institutions
2.1 The Big 7
* There is a need to recognize the universal validity of the non-formal education of young people, particularly through the work of world youth education organizations. Thus the Chief Executive Officers of seven of the largest worldwide, non-formal education organizations who today actively involve more than 100 million young people, have shared their vision of the non-formal education of young people into the next century. The Alliance of Youth CEOs comprises the Chief Executive Officers of the: World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations (YMCA), World Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA), World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), International Youth Foundation (IYF), International Award Association (IAA)
* The Guide Movement was formally established in 1910, starting in the United Kingdom and then spreading world-wide. The first official international co-operation started in 1919, and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in its present form was established in 1928. Due to the size of the organization (136 member countries, and around 10 million members) it is divided into five regions where national associations can work together on common problems and opportunities. The World Association is a British-based charity, and the Europe Region a Belgium-based international non-profit organization. The movement is non-formal and educational, and focuses on encouraging the development of the intellectual, spiritual, physical, emotional, social and moral aspects of its members, based on the movements' values. Its mission is to enable girls and young women to develop their fullest potential as responsible citizens of the world.
* The World Organization of the Scout Movement is an international organization composed of its national Scout organizations. The purpose is to contribute to the development of young people and help them develop their full physical, intellectual, social and spiritual potentials as individuals, as responsible citizens and as members of their local, national and international communities. Scouting began with 20 boys and an experimental camp in 1907 organized by Robert Baden-Powell. The first world Jamboree took place in 1920 with 8,000 participants. Today the organization reaches 25 million young people in 216 countries (and territories).
* The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is the world's largest humanitarian organization, with 178 member National Societies. It aims to assist the world's most vulnerable people and focuses on health, disaster response and disaster preparedness. Young people represent a substantial part of the membership worldwide. A youth program was developed to involve young people as much as possible in the movement. It aims to promote healthy living, international friendship, and community service. A youth unit within the Federation's Secretariat in Geneva assists National Societies to increase the involvement of young volunteers in their work. Technical support in the development of youth programs, fund-raising, identification of material and human resources, the youth unit aims to have young people recognized by National Societies leadership as equal partners who address the needs of the most vulnerable.
* The International Award is a self-development program open to all young people worldwide. It aims to equip them with life skills to make a difference to themselves, their communities and their world. To date over 5 million young people from over 100 countries have participated. It challenges and rewards young people for setting and reaching goals in for areas: Volunteer Public Service, Personal Development, Physical Fitness, and Expedition/Exploration.
* The World Young Women's Christian Association unites 25 million women and girls in over 100 countries through 94 autonomous national YWCAs which links thousands of local YWCAs whose programs meet community needs identified by women. WYCMA bases its work on Christian ecumenical principles and welcomes women of all faiths. It promotes women's equal participation, works for social and economic justice, and mobilizes women for action.
* The YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) is a world-wide Christian, ecumenical, voluntary movement for women and men with special emphasis on the involvement of young people. It seeks to build a human community of justice with love, peace and reconciliation. Founded in 1844, it now works through 14'000 local associations and 45 million members in 122 countries. The National Movements form the World Alliance of YMCAs, an international organization based in Geneva, Switzerland, which has consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.
* The International Youth Foundation is an association of 22 different grant making agencies in 22 different countries. It facilitates knowledge sharing between these foundations and makes various publications on the international situations of youth. In 1999 Nokia Corporation provided the IYF with a grant to design an internet youth portal. After hiring a team and consulting with Nokia and a number of young leaders the YouthActionNet project was started. It presents various tools and resources that are valuable for youth organizing.
http://www.youthactionnet.org and http://www.ifynet.org
2.2 Other Mainstream Movements
* Rotary is an organization of business and professional leaders united worldwide who provide humanitarian service, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations, and help build goodwill and peace in the world. In more than 160 countries worldwide, approximately 1.2 million Rotarians belong to more than 30,000 Rotary clubs. There are two global youth programs. Rotary Youth Leadership Awards (RYLA) is a training program for young leaders that emphasizes leadership, citizenship, and personal growth. Rotary Youth Exchange (ROTEX) is a program that facilitates the exchange of 8000 young people every year to stay for extended periods of time, involving youth from 82 countries.
RLYA: http://www.rotary.org/programs/ryla/index.html and ROTEX: http://www.rotary.org/programs/youth_ex/index.html
* Founded in 1915 and headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, Kiwanis International is an organization of service-and-community-minded individuals who support children and young adults around the world. More than 500,000 Kiwanis-family members in more than 80 countries respond to the needs of their communities and pool their resources to address worldwide issues. There are several community service and leadership programs for youth. Key Clubs work in high schools age youth and Circle K clubs work with college age youth. Hugh O'Brian Youth (HOBY) programs work with youth leadership. Globally, Kiwanis is also dedicated to halting iodine deficiency disorders, the world's leading preventable cause of mental retardation. Key Club International website: http://www.keyclub.org Circle K International website: http://www.circlek.org HOBY (mostly North America): http://www.hoby.org
Kiwanis International Website: http://www.kiwanis.org
* Lions Clubs International runs a number of other international youth programs including peace poster contests, youth camps, exchange programs, and clubs. The mission is to provide the young people of the world with opportunities for achievement, learning, contribution and service, individually and collectively, through sponsorship of activities identified as best practices in the field of youth development. Lions-Quest is also a youth program of Lions Clubs International and the Lions Clubs International Foundation. It is a life-skills training program for young people that is active in 33 countries and has helped more than 6 million students, ages 5 to 18, reach their full potential. The goal is to help youth build responsibility and resiliency — the ability to face and overcome life's difficulties — and avoid self-destructive behaviors. The program was started in 1975 by an 18-year-old who was trying to solve his own life problems.
http://www.lionsclubs.org and http://www.lions-quest.org
2.3 Mainstream Collaborative Initiatives
* The Global Youth ACTION Network (GYAN) is an incubator of global partnerships among youth organizations. It encourages collaboration and seeks to facilitate intergenerational partnership in global decision-making. It is partnered with TakingITGlobal which runs the highest traffic website on the net for young leaders.

* As part of its objective to enhance youth participation in civil society, CIVICUS convened in 1999 a meeting of global youth stakeholders such as the Commonwealth Youth Program, Development Education for Youth, AIESEC International, World Association for Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), and International Youth Foundation. From that meeting has arisen an informal alliance of these global stakeholders, known as Partners for Youth Participation. The Partners are currently discussing areas in which an alliance may add value to what is already underway through their own and other organizations' activities. Complementing and informing this joint activity are the ongoing youth participation programs of each of the Partners.
* Convened by the International Youth Foundation, the Global Partnership for Youth Development (GPYD) is a unique initiative through which global companies, development banks, bilateral aid agencies, private foundations, and NGOs are working in an unprecedented global partnership to improve the conditions and prospects of children and youth worldwide.
2.4 Mainstream Develop and Education Institutions
* The Development Education Association (DEA) was formed in 1993 to support and promote the work of all those engaged in raising awareness and understanding of global and development issues in the UK. It is a national umbrella body working with over 240 member and partner organizations in the UK and overseas. Development education aims to raise awareness and understanding of how global issues affect the lives of individuals, communities and societies and how all of us can and do influence the global society we live in. It aims to bring global perspectives into all aspects of learning - from the school classroom to universities to local community activities to the media. The youth portion of their website contains some interesting documents that are helpful to organizers who want to help youth think globally.
* The Global Information Networks in Education (GINIE) serve as a 'virtual learning community' for education innovation in nations in crisis and transition. They use Internet-based technology to build a capacity for rapid access to information and expertise for education professionals working internationally in nations in crisis and at risk to disruption. The GINIE networks help education policymakers, donor/investors, researchers and practitioners to work collaboratively, to learn from each other, and to inform the public. They place particular emphasis on the development of long term professional networks within and across regions. These networks are intended to share locally created materials and expertise with counterparts for policy dialogue, professional development and classroom exchange.
* Founded in 1932 World Learning (WL) is the only international organization with both academic and project capabilities dedicated to promoting international education, social justice, and world peace. Through distinctive educational methods based on experiential learning and the integration of theory and practice, the programs build knowledge, develop leaders in education and management, contribute to global development, and effect change. The three chief programs of (WL) are 1) Projects in International Development and Training which manages projects in international education, institutional capacity building, democracy and more, 2) the School for International Training (SIT) is accredited college that offers master's degrees, study abroad, extension courses, and educational system reform initiatives, as well as training in conflict transformation and international management, 3) World Learning for Business offers global enterprises a single source for customized, competency-based language and intercultural training, and 4) the Experiment in International Living is a summer exchange program that immerses high school students in another culture in one of over 20 countries.
* Save the Children (STC) was started in 1932. It works in 45 countries all over the world. Their model is simple, they work with families to define and solve the problems that their children and their communities face. They use a broad array of strategies to ensure self-sufficiency and today have become a leading international relief and development organization. STC has some programs that work directly with youth including their "Strong Beginnings" program and their new online youth community: YouthNoise
http://www.savethechildren.org/edu/sb_youth_dev.shtml and http://www.youthnoise.org
3. Annual Camps and/or Events
* Global Youth Service Day (GYSD) is an annual global event organized by Youth Service America and the Global Youth Action Network, together with a consortium of 32 International Organizations and well over 100 National Coordinating Committees that Celebrates, Recognizes, and Mobilizes the year-round contributions of young people to build their communities and their world through voluntary service, and the contributions made by the community (public, private, and nonprofit sectors) for empowering young people.
* Legacy International (LI) works with diverse groups of young people on programs that provide experiences, skills, and strategies to help them improve their own lives and the lives of others around them. Program themes have included cross-cultural and global competency, professional retraining, environmental consideration, entrepreneurial skills, conflict transformation, and youth development. The flagship program of LI is the Global Youth Village, a three week camp that evokes creativity, dialogue, cross-cultural competency through a dynamic blend of workshops and recreational activities change vary daily. Since 1979 the program has benefited young people from over 100 countries.
* Youth Jams are week long, annual gatherings (national and global) of 30 young dynamic activists and leaders who are currently at the forefront of working for a sane, just and peaceful world. The Jams provide participant with the opportunity to build community, network, share cultures, renew themselves and envision the world they want.
* The Mongolian Youth Development Centre (MYDC) was established in 1997 and is a non-governmental organization that works to provide opportunities for youths to develop themselves through social, educational, cultural and physical activities. One of the cornerstones of the organization is its youth exchange programme, drawing both local and international youths. The youth exchange program is an enrichment program that allows youths from different countries to interact with each other and be more socially aware of the richness and diversity of each of their respective cultures. Each year, the MYDC hold an International youth camp for youths aged 14-20. This has been going on since 1999 and the camps have become progressively bigger and more exciting. Each year, more and more countries are represented and each year, more and more activities are added. The camps are a wonderful opportunity for international participants to interact with not only each other but also with the volunteers who help organize camps and the Mongolian youths who participate.
* Camp Rising Sun is an international scholarship camp for young leaders. Each summer it gathers dozens of young men and woman from 35 countries of the world for a 8 week leadership training program. The program is 70 years old and supports a global network of alumni.
* Seeds of Peace is a non-profit, non-political organization that helps teenagers from regions of conflict learn the skills of making peace. The program helps young people air their views and learn listening, communication and other conflict resolution techniques. The goal is to help them develop empathy for one another. Since the program began in 1993 it has served young people from 22 countries including young people from the conflicts of the balkans, the middle east, cyprus, and Kashmir (India and Pakistan). It is considered to be an international model for working with you.
* The Ship for World Youth (SWY) is a unique international cultural exchange program organised by the Government of Japan. The most prestigious program of its kind, SWY brings together over 250 youth from around the world to learn about international cooperation and understanding. Over a two-month period, participants are involved in a wide range of activities aimed at fostering cultural sensitivity, understanding and friendship. Most of the program is conducted onboard the cruise liner Nippon Maru, with some activities scheduled in Japan, and others in a number of seaports that are visited in the course of the voyage. Commencing in 1989, the program is run on an annual basis. Each year a different mix of nations is invited to participate and a different ports of call are incorporated into the itinerary.
* The Students Forum 2000 is a project of the Czech government. It provides training to young leaders and brings them together face to face with world leaders to address globalization and other global issues. It is one of the few forums that provides young people with direct access to world's most powerful decision-makers.
* Run annually from the Czech republic, the Global Leadership Program is a for-youth-by youth training program for students that teaches how to be a global citizen
* The Asian UNESCO headquarters in Asia organizes an International Youth Camp every year.
4. Employment, Economy, and Youth
* The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions is the global nexus of unions and union organizers. The objectives of the ICFTU's Global Youth Program are to organize young people in unions, to create more and better jobs for young people, and to achieve quality education for all.
* The World Bank, ILO, and UN partnership on youth employment is called the Youth Employment Network. The network draws on the most creative leaders in private industry, economic policy and civil society (including youth leaders) to explore imaginative approaches to the youth employment challenge. The network will develop recommendations on possible sources of solutions, including the contribution that information technology and the informal sector can make to employment generation. For unknown reasons the YEN isn't closely involved in the Youth Employment Summit.
* Junior Chamber International (JCI), Inc., is a worldwide federation of young professionals and entrepreneurs between the ages of 18 and 40. National level member organizations are active in more than 5,700 chapters in 110 nations around the world. The mission of JCO is to contribute to the advancement of the global community by providing the opportunity for young people to develop the leadership skills, social responsibility, fellowship, and entrepreneurship necessary to create positive change. Junior Chamber International was founded in Mexico City in 1944, when representatives from eight nations met to create an organization that would address global concerns.
* The World Youth Bank project was started by the National Youth Council of Croatia. It was highlighted by the World Assembly of Youth European Youth Dialogue as well as the Youth Employment Summit and is now poised for institutional development. The idea is simple. One limiting factor of youth employment is access to low-cost funds and investment capital. Investments from global funds such as the ILO and the World Bank seldom reach youth; instead they get absorbed by national budgets. For these reasons the need for establishing the World Youth Bank Network is being recognized by youth all over the world. The launch date is targeted for Spring of 2002, at the World Assembly of Youth's Global Youth Summit on Brijuni Islands, 23-28. March, 2002. The mission is to rebuild the world in the new climate of intergenerational tolerance and understanding. It will be based on a new method of transparent accounting that uses a "life production capability" evaluation method as a quality standard.
* Founded in 1987, the Young Entrepreneurs' Organization (YEO) is a global, non-profit educational organization for business owners under age 40. It strives to help its members build upon their successes through an array of learning and networking opportunities. With 4,700 members in 102 chapters and 34 countries around the world, YEO provides its members access to a dynamic network of peers on an international level. YEO is the junior partner of WEO, the World Entrepreneur's Organization.
* The Youth Employment Summit is a series of events and a decade long campaign to create 500 million new jobs for young people who will be entering the work force during the next ten years. The summit's inaugural event took place in Alexandria, Egypt in September 2002 and was attended by 2000 people, young leaders and Ministries of Youth from dozens of countries. For unknown reasons the YES isn't closely involved in the Youth Employment Network (of the ILO, World Bank, and UN).
* The Young Presidents' Organization is a membership group of individual leading officers of the large corporations and institutions under the age of 50. The is to create "Better Leaders Through Education and Idea Exchange." Founded in 1950 and headquartered in Dallas, Texas, USA, the organization has near 8,500 members from 75 countries worldwide. The program develops "Better Leaders Through Education and Idea Exchange" by providing a challenging environment that promotes the exchange of ideas and shared experiences. By inspiring the continual improvement of each individual leader, YPO facilitates the acquisition of knowledge -- and, more importantly -- the development of wisdom. It is a partner of the Young Entrepreneur's Organization.
5. Corporations and International Sports Federations with Global Youth Support Programs
* The General Association of International Sports Federations links near 80 international networks. Some of these networks have "World Youth Championships" such as the International Sailing Federation and the World Chess Federation. Others do not. Many of these groups are supported by corporations that sell sports equipment or that sell products to consumers who watch the games in action. Many still have yet to develop and link their international youth development programs. One federation has made a start: the International Federation of Soccer Associations (FIFA).
* In the early 1980s, a group of young street performers, dreamers and self-taught entrepreneurs had the vision and drive to create Cirque du Soleil. Long before they became successful Cirque du Soleil Artists performed their shows in the street. They succeeded partly because older people believed in them, regardless of their age or status as street performers. CdS now supports youth in difficulty, especially street kids. It has a number of programs that have supported youth in 24 communities on 6 continents. The programs include training of instructors, circus workshops with youth at risk, community involvement, and arts education.
* Goal is a project of the International Federation of Soccer Associations (FIFA). It was started in 1999 in order to support national soccer associations with infrastructure development, education programs, administration, and youth soccer initiatives such as training of youth coaches, talent promotion, and soccer camps.
6. Inter-Governmental Bodies
6.1 UN and UN Agencies
We researched youth participation all UN agencies and have listed here the youth focused pages among them. Many do not have a framework for youth participation. A comprehensive listing of UN agencies and other international institutions can be founded at http://www.unsystem.org
* The United Nations Youth Unit has been responsible for organizing the World Youth Forum of the United Nations System. In November of 2002 the Unit was merged with a new UN body that also works with aging and family and is called the Intergenerational Issues Section. The UN has organized four World Youth Forums and produced various documents detailing agreements of international youth organizers.
* The UNEP Youth Advisory Council (YAC) is a group of 12 youth leaders (2 per region) elected biennially at UNEP's Global Youth Retreat. The Council works closely with UNEP on environmental issues, UNEP decision making processes, and UNEP program development. The Council members support UNEP in enhancing environmental awareness and act as ambassadors for the environmental conscience of young people world wide.
* The UNESCO Youth Coordination Unit is a small unit within UNESCO's Headquarters (Paris, France) which is part of the Bureau for Strategic Planning (BSP). BSP's principal task is to prepare the Organization's Medium-Term Strategy. Furthermore, BSP has responsibility for the development, mainstreaming and coordination of UNESCO's strategies and programs pertaining to women, youth and least developed countries and to build appropriate partnerships. The unit organizes UNESCO's Action WITH and FOR Youth and we communicate directly with young people through a wide network of youth associations and NGO's. The unit also organizes a UNESCO youth forum every few years.
* UNICEF, the United Nations Children's Fund has two projects for youth, both of which are mentioned elsewhere in this document. One is the UN Special Session and Children and the other is the UN Voices of Youth Website.
http://www.unicef.org/specialsession and http://www.unicef.org/voy
* UNAIDS is the UN initiative to combat aids. Linked here are guidelines for youth participation in this inter-governmental program.
* UN Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (UNDCP) views the involvement of young people in the development of drug-abuse prevention activities as crucial. The goal of the Global Youth Network is to allow young people to influence decision-making processes, to use their unique ability to formulate novel approaches to common problems and to build bridges connecting youth around the world. The project aims to create a self-sustaining network of youth groups. Participants will be trained and equipped to identify and disseminate innovative approaches to drug-abuse prevention among young people within their own region or constituency. The Network will also collect information on new patterns and trends in drug abuse among young people. This early warning system will help UNDCP identify emerging drug-abuse problems among youth. The Global Youth Network grew out of the Banff Youth Vision Jeunesse Drug Abuse Prevention Forum in 1998 in Canada and now has member groups in almost 30 countries. Several youth groups participating in the Forum shared ideas about how to prevent drug abuse. Their ideas and proposals were brought to the attention of government leaders during the Special Session of the General Assembly devoted to countering the world drug problem in June 1998. The Global Youth Network allows the original groups from Banff and many others to stay in contact, to continue to learn from each other and to have access to educational materials and information.
* The UNFPA is committed to helping young people protect their rights to reproductive and sexual health and provides some resources for this purpose.
* UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) World Disaster Reduction Campaign Disaster Reduction, Education and Youth
* The mission of FAO's rural youth development work is to strengthen and expand existing government and non-government rural youth programmes and help establish new ones that enable girls and boys and young women and men to become productive and contributing citizens of their local communities. While working with each member country's and/or individual organization's definition of youth (which varies considerably from 10 to 35 years of age), the priority target age range for FAO are young people of both sexes between the ages of 12 and 25. Milestones of FAO's work over recent years includes two expert consultations; one in 1985 as part of the UN System's International Youth Year and the other in 1995. This last expert consultation laid the foundation for the current rural youth programme. FAO's YouthWorks, a newsletter first published in 1986, reaches thousands of professional youth workers around the world in French, Spanish and English. In 1997, the FAO Rural Youth Network for Food Security and Sustainable Development in Anglophone Sub-Sahara Africa was established. FAO's focal point for rural youth work is the Rural Youth Officer (rural-youth@fao.org) located in the Extension, Education and Communication Service of the Sustainable Development Department. Rural youth development draws on resources and technical support from many division within FAO including nutrition, agriculture, forestry and fisheries.
6.2 English, French, Spanish and Arabic Speaking Networks
* The Commonwealth Youth Program is an intergovernmental project aimed at strengthening national youth ministries and helping young people reach their full potential. It was founded in 1974 and works with young people all throughout the commonwealth on leadership, gender equality, youth employment, youth policies and training for youth workers. The program has regional offices in Europe, Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and the South Pacific. It organizes regional youth forums and is structures around a Youth Caucus that involves young people in decision-making at the pan-Commonwealth level. 54 countries participate in the program.
* The Mobilization Program of Francophone Youth (PMJ) was founded in September of 1999 by the leaders of francophone countries. It was set up to facilitate the creation of youth networks and exchanges. The program organizes training seminars for youth and facilitates the sharing of knowledge and resources. The website as well contains much content for the program constituency. 51 countries participate in the program.
* The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) has relationships with international bodies for Muslim youth. The Sports Federation of Islamic solidarity Games seeks to strengthen Islamic solidarity among youth in member states and promote Islamic identity in the fields of sports and to inculcate the principles of non-discrimination as to religion, race or class, in conformity with the precepts of Islam. The World Federation of International Arab-Islamic Schools works for the dissemination of Islamic culture and the teaching of Arabic, the language of the Holy Qur'an, by extending support to the schools and cultural centres, and by training personnel and developing cooperation among the institutions endeavoring to spread Arabic language and Islamic culture all over the world as well as by creating sponsoring supervisory Arab-Islamic Schools.
* OIJ is an intergovernmental youth organization that links youth ministries and national youth organizations in Spain and Latin American countries. It organizes seminars, makes various publications, and promotes dialogue and cooperation among youth in these countries. It is composed of groups from 21 countries.
6.3 Other Intergovernmental Agencies
We researched youth participation in many non-UN intergovernmental agencies such as the World Trade Organization, the OECD, the G77, and the Non-Aligned Movement. Most had not framework for youth participation. Those with such frameworks are listed below.
* The International Telecommunication Union manages the development of international communications technologies. For the first time in 2003 it will involve young people in its annual conference. It will provide education and seek youth input on several including the basics of telecom technologies and their possible uses, the relationships between policy/regulation and market structure in the world, the fundamentals of building a dynamic communications environment, the relationships between policy, regulation and the business world and finally how business is related to the world of communications. This is the first step to strengthen youth participation in decision-making related to international communications development.
http://www.itu.int/WORLD2003/forum/youth/index.html and site on youth education: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/hrd/yes/
* This page of the World Health Organization (WHO) provides links to descriptions of activities, reports, news and events, as well as contacts and cooperating partners in the various WHO programs and offices working on this topic. Also shown are links to related web sites and topics.
* The World Bank, recognizing the importance of youth to development, has a Development Education Program (DEP) which produces tools and resources to help teachers and young people to explore social, economic, and environmental issues of sustainable development in their classrooms, communities, and around the world. Their web sites offer a wide range of materials--from classroom ready learning modules to "edu-tainment" to primary source World Bank documents and data--all designed to help young people find information for making informed, well-considered decisions for a sustainable future.
7. Internet Portals
7.1 Youth-Led Sites
* TakingITGlobal is an international youth organization that inspires, informs, involves and connects young people through a global online community, supporting youth action globally and locally. It is partnered with the Global Youth ACTION Network which is an incubator of global partnerships among youth organizations and seeks to facilitate intergenerational partnership in global decision-making.
* Cooperation.net is an internet portal for young social entrepreneurs. The purpose of the network is to offer young people better opportunities to identify themselves and play a role in their communities. The second purpose is share information about participatory and decentralized movements, organizations, and lifestyles. The site is available in French, German, and English and is organized in partnership with Ynternet.org
* EarthYouth.net is created by young people for young people. The idea was conceived at the UNEP Global Youth Forum on Sustainable Development in Denmark in March 2002. Since then, development of the project has been led by a small but enthusiastic team at the Toronto, Canada, office of TakingITGlobal, and international organization led and run entirely by young people. It was the key youth portal for the 2002 UN World Summit on Sustainable Development in South Africa. It provides an online forum for young people who care for the planet to connect, network, and gain access to resources and advance the youth movement for sustainability. Key partners in the project include the European Youth Forum, the Global Youth Action Network, Peace Child International, Mandate The Future, Global Youth Reporters Program, the International Young Professionals Foundation, and hundreds of grassroots youth partners from around the world. The project is endorsed by UNEP and the Earth Charter and partially funded by the UNICEF the UNDP.
* IYOCO is a platform on the Internet that offers information and resources to promote international youth cooperation.
* Madate the Future is an Internet youth forum that focuses on Sustainable Development and discuss issues based on current events. The goal is to submit results from this youth forum to decision-makers in order to strengthen youth impact on the global agenda.
7.2 UN Sites
* The INFOYOUTH Network was initiated in 1991 by UNESCO in order to meet two main challenges: on the one hand, the necessity to counteract the splintering of various and scattered information sources and networks on youth, and on the other, the urgent need to implement appropriate and coherent youth policies from local to global levels.
* The UN Cyber School Bus provides students with a forum for learning about the world in which they live. It was created in 1996 as the online education component of the Global Teaching and Learning Project, whose mission is to promote education about international issues and the United Nations. The specific aims of the Cyberschoolbus are 1) To create an on-line global education community; 2) To create educational action projects to show students that they have a role in finding solutions to global problems; 3) To give students a voice in global issues; 4) To provide high-quality teaching resources to a wide range of educators in a cost-effective manner.
* Voices of Youth is the UNICEF online forum for youth participation in global issues.
7.3 Other Sites
* The Child Rights Information Network (CRIN) is a global network that disseminates information about the Convention on the Rights of the Child and child rights amongst non-governmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations agencies, inter-governmental organization (IGOs), educational institutions, and other child rights experts. The Coordinating Unit is based in London, UK. The network is supported, and receives funding from, UNICEF, Rädda Barnen, Save the Children UK and the International Save the Children Alliance. It has a membership of more than 1,100 organizations in over 100 countries. About 84 percent of the members are NGOs while 55 percent are in the South (including 22 percent in Africa and 18 percent in Asia). In addition to working with member organizations, CRIN serves the information needs of 1,600 organizations and 60 individuals who have joined their mailing list.
* A World Bank project, the Development Gateway is an interactive portal for information and knowledge sharing on sustainable development and poverty reduction. It offers a comprehensive database of development projects, an international procurement marketplace, knowledge sharing on key development topics and more. It also has a section devoted to youth.
* Action Without Borders is better known by its website idealist.org It is one of the chief sites on the internet for listing non-profit jobs and resources. They have organized a series of links to many different resources of interest to youth, targeting children and adolescents.
* United Youth International is a USA based initiative making a fresh attempt to get youth around the world to work together using the Internet as a starting point.
* YouthNOISE that is an initiative of Save the Children Federation, Inc. It is a group of young people and adults working together to provide info and resources--via the Internet--that will spark youth action and voice.
8. Global Political Youth Networks
8.1 Socialist and Communist Youth Networks
* The World Federation of Democratic Youth is global assembly of national level youth organizations that are opposed to imperialism. Communist and socialist youth bodies make up most of its members.
* The International Union of Socialist Youth is the global platform of national level socialist youth organizations. It is oriented to "social democrat" youth bodies.
* International Young Nature Friends seeks to develop socialist culture and offer education opportunities to working class people.
* The International Falcon Movement - Socialist Educational International strives to educate children and young people according to the basic principles of tolerance, equality and friendship.
8.2 Other Spectrums of Politics
* Global Young Greens Network gathers young members of Green Parties from many different countries around the world. It is dedicated to sharing information, examining different ways of protesting, and exploring different models used around the world to make change.
* Anarchist International has a separate federation of anarchist youth networks – the International Federation of Anarchist Youth. The website has little content of direct interest to youth, not even local networks.
* The International Federation of Liberal Youth is the international umbrella organization of liberal and radical youth organizations. It is the platform for co-operation among liberal and radical youth and student organizations in the world.
* International Young Democrat Union (IYDU) is an organization for young conservatives worldwide. It has member-organizations in more than 60 countries all over the world. It lobbies for conservative values of democracy, political freedom, freedom of speech, individual liberty, and the right to private property.
* The World Federalist Association has a youth program dedicated to democratizing international decision-making. It provides training to lobby national governments and international decision-making institutions offering teaching one of the most comprehensive approaches to addressing human rights, environmental degradation and lack of democratic representation at the global level. Youth are best organized in Europe and work together under the regional body called the Young Federalists of Europe.
http://www.wfa.org/youth and http://www.jef-europe.net
9. Research and Policy Focused
* The Global Program on Youth, based at the University of Michigan School of Social Work in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, creates broad-based groups of scholars, policy makers, and service providers who work together to address critical and timely issues related to children and youth. GPY addresses the translation from research to practice in an effort to make research more accessible and applicable to policy makers and practitioners. The project involves local and international, and inter-institutional and inter-professional collaborations.
* The International Child and Youth Care Network gathers experts and young leaders who support at-risk youth. It organizes international conferences and fosters debate and discussion on national and international models which aim to safeguard the rights and advance the well-being of children and youth. Some of the conferences it organizes include the International Conference on Adolescent Health, Victimization of Children & Youth: An International Conference, Healthy Justice for Children and Young People, etc.
* The European Youth Information and Counselling Agency (ERYICA) was established on 17 April 1986 in Madrid, in accordance with a recommendation adopted by the first European Colloquium of Youth Information Centers. It is composed of national bodies, non-governmental or governmental, which seek to guarantee the right of young people to full and reliable information which promotes their autonomy and their active participation in a democratic society.
* International Council on National Youth Policy - The first objective of the ICNYP is to encourage and enable all stakeholders, and most particularly youth, to participate in all aspects of formulating, implementing and evaluating national youth policy.
* The Journal of Youth Studies is an international scholarly journal devoted to a theoretical and empirical understanding of young people's experiences and life contexts. Over the last decade, changing socio-economic circumstances have had important implications for young people: new opportunities have been created, but the risks of marginalisation and exclusion have also become significant. This is the background against which Journal of Youth Studies has been launched, with the aim of becoming the key multidisciplinary journal for academics with interests relating to youth and adolescence.

* The International Sociological Association (ISA) was founded 1948 in close cooperation with UNESCO's Research Department. As peace education and youth issues were in the forefront of the postwar, many of the first officers of ISA were also youth sociologists. In 1975 the Research Committee on Sociology of Youth, RC 34, was established as a specialized branch of the ISA. The RC 34 was from the beginning not only a network for pure academic youth research, but also committed to the original heritage of social and political responsibility. This implies standing partnership with multilateral organisations aiming at conflict resolution, peace and the development of civic society. It is also the policy of RC 34 to invite, for membership and participation, colleagues from other disciplines as well as practitioners in the youth fields. In turn, they serve as a global, interdisciplinary network and meeting place for youth issues in general.

10. Service Programs
* Good Neighbors is an international NGO with Christian roots that organizes overseas trips for volunteers to help provide service for those in need. It mostly works with young people and has projects in 10 countries in Asia and Africa. It is headquartered in Korea.
* Habitat for Humanity International is building around the world, dedicated to the ideal that all people deserve a simple, decent place to live on terms they can afford to pay. Working in partnership with volunteers, churches and synagogues, organizations and the new homeowner families, Habitat for Humanity is building houses and building lives. It works in 80 countries around the world and has many programs that support young people.
* Service Civil International (SCI) is a voluntary service organization with 37 branches and groups worldwide. It promotes peace, international understanding and solidarity, social justice, sustainable development, and respect for the environment. It also believes that all the people are capable of living together with mutual respect and without recourse to any form of violence to solve conflicts. Towards these ends SCI organizes work camps, long term voluntary service exchange programs with other countries, and peace building projects in specific conflict regions of the world (eg the Balkans and the Middle East).
* The Coordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service (CCIVS) was created as an international non-governmental organization responsible for the coordination of voluntary service. It is today one of the main international structures which acts as a coordinating link between voluntary organizations which run workcamps and medium and long term activities. CCIVS has currently over 140 member organizations all across the world, among which some of them are international organizations having their own national branches in over 100 countries. The activities and programs of these organizations are carried out by groups of national and international volunteers over a period ranging from a few weeks (e.g. international workcamps) to more than a year.
* Volunteers for Peace is a voluntary membership organization that has been coordinating International Workcamps since 1982. In 2001, they exchanged over 1200 volunteers. Their services include providing consultation and a placement service for workcamp hosts and volunteers, linking people with programs.
* World Corps is an international non-governmental organization (NGO) with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, USA, and training sites in India, Kenya, Mexico, and the Philippines. World Corps: Collaborating with public, private and NGO partners in developing countries, World Corps identifies promising young leaders from rural areas. It gives these men and women, known as World Corps Professionals (WCPs), a long-term, intensive training program designed to teach skills in business development, community development, and global citizenship. The goal is to give them skills that they will need to establish their own small businesses that will have both commercial and community missions. The first 15 Indian WCPs in the pilot program, after three months of classroom and field training, have started Community Information Center's (CICs) in the five major towns of Kuppam Constituency, in southern Andhra Pradesh State. Other young leaders are developing projects in Brazil, Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, and the Philippines.
* Youth Action for Peace is a youth led, international voluntary youth movement working for a society of justice, peace and human solidarity. It organizes international work camps to build community among youth from diverse backgrounds and to do voluntary service. In particular, the movement focuses upon the issue of social exclusion and supports people in their struggle for freedom and self-determination. YAP is a member of the UNESCO's Coordinating Committee on International Voluntary service and in that capacity has consultative status with the UN. It works with groups from a 15 countries and four continents.
* The Youth Millennium Project aims to give children of all ages a voice in shaping their societies and motivate them to act. It challenges young people to organize local community projects to make a difference. It connects each youth action project with four others in different countries and provides translation to help youth share their ideas, their cultures, and their communities. The project fosters confidence by helping participants created a local solution to a global problem in collaboration with thousands of other children who are taking on their own piece of the world. The project was launched in partnership between a UNICEF and a Canadian University.
* World University Service (WUS) is an association of members from the academic community, who are committed to the human right to education on the basis of academic freedom and university autonomy, with the aim to support higher education institutions under political oppression and in material need. WUS is organised as a loose federation of more than forty independent country committees with an International Management Board, presently chaired by WUS Canada. It has consultative status within the United Nations and UNESCO. The directory of national committees is listed here: http://www.wusgermany.de/wusinf/wus-adr/adrliste.htm
The address of the federation website, http://antenna.nl/wus-i , seems to have expired.
* The International Association for National Youth Service was established in 1996 to stimulate and facilitate the exchange of information about National Youth Service, and to help realise the promise of National Youth Service (NYS). The Secretariat of IANYS is based in the country which is hosting the next global conference on national youth service. http://www.acys.utas.edu.au/ianys/index.html

* The HOPE Youth Corps (HYC) was established in 1994 to develop spiritual leadership skills in high-school and college-aged HOPE worldwide volunteers. The program is presented in collaboration with the International Churches of Christ and is primarily funded through scholarships provided by the churches. Selected students from around the world spend two weeks working with HOPE worldwide programs in developing countries. Leadership qualities are developed as participants serve the poor, face challenges that take them to new levels of commitment and build life-long relationships with strong peers. Volunteers travel to such international cities as Bucharest (Romania), Cape Town (South Africa), Kingston (Jamaica), Mexico City (Mexico), New Delhi (India), Phnom Penh (Cambodia) and Zhangjiajie (China). http://hyc.hopeworldwide.org

11. Student Focused Groups and Exchange Programs
11.1 Groups with an Online Focus

* IEARN is a global network of more than 5000 schools in more than 90 countries. It helps students collaborate through the internet on projects to show them that they can make a difference.
* Life-Link Friendship-Schools is an independent Non Governmental Organisation which aims to promote contact and cooperation between young people around the world and their schools, through active participation in shared projects, vital for our time (e.g. Environment, Human Rights, Conflict Resolution and Constructive Collaboration). Life-Link projects centre around three main areas of attention: Care for ourselves - Care for each other - Care for the environment. Realisation of these three interdependent areas will lead to increased common security. The philosophy is based on natural and social sciences and is neither politically nor religiously aligned. It has international contacts in more than 60 countries worldwide.

* ThinkQuest Programs is a national and international competition. It provide a motivating opportunity for students and educators to work collaboratively in teams and to learn as they create web based learning materials and teach others. It has motivated independent national level competitions in 22 countries around the world.
* Since 1996, ePALS Classroom Exchange has been helping teachers, parents and students around the world take advantage of new technologies that enhance and enrich learning experiences. Today it links over 4.5 million students and teachers that seek to build their skills and enhance their learning. It has near 75,000 classroom profiles that bring people together from 191 countries for cross-cultural learning as partners and friends.

* A project of the World Bank, WorldLinks connects and trains teachers and kids in developing countries to improve education and employment opportunities. eLearning and the Internet are the tools to make this happen. World Links combines three key components to realize its goals, designed to have the greatest demonstration8 and multiplier effect: connectivity solutions; training and professional development; and monitoring and evaluation tools. For each of these solutions World Links has developed leading-edge solutions adapted to the needs of developing countries-no other organization has focused exclusively on the specific needs of developing countries.
11.2 Teenager Focused Groups
* Youth for Understanding (YFU), American Field Service (AFS), International Cultural Youth Exchange (ICYE), and Youth for Exchange and Understanding (YEU) are international exchange programs. Each year they help match thousands of young people with families in foreign countries for one month to one year "exchanges" and "volunteerships." They are unique compared to other exchange programs because they promote youth involvement in decision-making politically and culturally. AFS and YFU helped create the Council for Standards on International Education Travel (http://www.csiet.org ). ICYE organizes an three week International Youth Convention each year in Europe that is well attended.
http://www.yfu.org , http://www.afs.org , http://www.icye.org , and http://www.yeu.de
* The International Federation for Educational Exchanges of Children and Adolescents (FIEEA) was created in Paris in 1983. Its founding members have been organizing international educational exchanges for children and adolescents with a large number of movements and associations.
* Children's International Summer Villages (CISV) is a unique youth exchange organization CISV evolved from a firm conviction that lasting peace is possible if individuals and groups can learn to live together as friends. For CISV, the key to making this vision a reality, was to start working with children and youth. Programs were developed which offered young people opportunities to meet their peers from other countries and to form intercultural friendships. Locally, programs give people the chance to learn about the cultures in their own communities and explore important themes related to peace and understanding.
* The United World Colleges are a group of ten related International Schools, with locations throughout the world, and dedicated to promoting international understanding through education. Students from 16-19 years of age come from all corners of the globe to live and study together, and to learn about each other in an environment that fosters peace, cooperation, and personal challenge. UWC students are chosen on merit, regardless of race, creed, color, background or financial ability and the majority are awarded scholarships.

11.3 University Groups
* AIESEC is the world's largest student organization. It is a network of 50,000 members across more than 83 countries and including more than 800 universities world-wide. AIESEC facilitates international exchange of thousands of students and recent graduates each year to do both paid and volunteer traineeships in corporations and more recently in non-profit organizations as well.

* SIFE Teams establish a variety of community outreach programs that teach free enterprise. For example, they teach concepts such as budgeting, accounting and supply and demand. They help budding entrepreneurs get their plans off the ground and mentor at-risk students, inspiring them to reach for their dreams.

* The International Association of Agricultural Students (IAAS) was founded in 1957 in Tunisia and is an international network of agricultural student associations. It gathers students interested in agriculture and other sciences such as forestry, conservation, food sciences, landscape architecture etc. It reaches to universities in over 40 countries worldwide. The aim is to promote the exchange of knowledge and to improve the mutual understanding between countries and cultures. It is done by organizing seminars, work camps, international conferences, small-scale development projects, and international exchanges.
* The International Federation of Medical Student Associations links national student groups in 77 countries. It organizes a bilateral exchange program, where one student completes a clerkship at a medical school in foreign country from his own – and in return, a medical student from that country completes term at the original student's medical school. The association defends the rights of medical students and raises awareness about international health issues.
* The Postgraduates International Network (PI-Net) was founded on October 25th, 1997 by a group of postgraduate student representatives meeting in Budapest, Hungary. The organization aims to encourage international co-operation between postgraduate student associations, and to facilitate communication between the members of the international postgraduate community.
* The International Union of Students links 152 national unions of students in 114 countries. The IUS is therefore the largest representation of students in the world. It defends the right to education.
* The International Association of Universities, founded in 1950, is the UNESCO-based world-wide association of universities. It brings together institutions and organizations from some 150 countries for reflection and action on common concerns and collaborates with various international, regional and national bodies active in higher education. Its services are available to organizations, institutions and authorities concerned with higher education, as well as to individual policy and decision-makers, specialists, administrators, teachers, researchers and students.

* The International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience (IAESTE) was established in the UK in 1948 with 10 member countries. Today it exchanges youth in 80 countries. The mission of the organization has three priorities: 1) To provide students at institutions of higher education with technical experience abroad relative to their studies in the broadest sense, 2) To promote international understanding and goodwill amongst the students of all nations irrespective of race, color, sex or creed, and 3) To operate an exchange programme for the benefits of students, academic institutions and other organizations offering traineeships.

Other University Links and Networks, Mostly Without Global Reach

International Veterinary Student Association - http://www.ivsa.org
International Law Student Association - http://www.ilsa.org
International Student Tourism Association - http://futurista.org
International Forestry Students Association - http://www.ifsa.net
International African Students Association - http://www.iasaonline.org
International Association of Political Science Students - http://www.iapss.org
International Students of History Association - http://www.isha-international.org
International Association of Civil Engineering Students - http://www.iaces.org
International Association of Physics Students - http://druid.if.uj.edu.pl/~iaps/
International Pharmaceutical Students' Federation - http://www.ipsf.org
International Federation of Mining, Metallurgy, petroleum and geology Students - http://www.ifmms.org
International Association of Dental Students - http://www.iadsweb.org
International Association of Student and TV Radio - http://www.iastar.org
Links from the World Conference on Higher Education - http://www.unesco.org/education/wche/links.shtml

12. Travel
* The Federation of International Youth Travel Organizations (FIYTO) is a membership association and trade forum for youth travel organizations and professionals. It has become the largest and most influential organization in the youth and student travel industry. It is the meeting point and advocate for a rapidly growing segment of a travel industry: youth tourism. It has 450 members in 70 countries accounting for an estimated turnover of four billion US dollars. Together, each year they serve more than 20 million travelers, provide 7 million air/ground transport tickets, and employ 100 thousand staff. FIYTO holds the world´s largest annual trade fair for buyers, sellers and suppliers in the youth and student travel industry: The Annual FIYTO Conference, an integral part of the World Youth and Student Travel Conference (WYSTC). FIYTO offers the GO25 Card, our International Youth Travel Card, a discount card which facilitates access to travel, accommodation, culture and leisure for young travelers. FIYTO also publishes the magazine Youth Travel International, which reaches more than two thousand decision-makers in the travel industry worldwide.

* The International Student Travel Confederation (ISTC) was established in 1949 by university student unions to make travel affordable for students. Today more than 70 more than 70 specialist travel companies work through the member organizations of ISTC to further this goal. They specialize in securing student benefits in the areas of flights, insurance, ground transport, work exchange programs, and international identity cards. The ISTC network includes more than 5000 offices in over 100 countries. Members collective serve 10 million students each year.
* Hostelling International is the brand name of the International Youth Hostel Federation, the organization representing Youth Hostel Associations worldwide. It is a non-governmental, non-profit making organization recognized by UNESCO. The global headquarters is based in the United Kingdom. It is one of the world's biggest membership organizations for youth. Every year more than 4 million people explore the world these hostels and contribute almost US $1.4 billion to tourist revenues worldwide.
13. Theme, Kinship, Advocacy and Issue Focused Groups
* The TakingITGlobal HIV and AIDS network has three goals: 1.Connect youth-run AIDS advocacy and service groups around the world. 2. Link young people attending the International AIDS Conference in Barcelona. And 3. Convene electronically to plan youth representation for global events and processes relating to AIDS, such as United Nations conferences, treatment access and international funding issues, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria.
* Youth Against Aids is a network of young leaders, mostly in Africa, dedicated to preventing AIDS. It is partnered with the Student Global Aids Campaign (http://www.fightglobalaids.org ) and the African Youth Alliance (http://www.ayaonline.org ).
13.2 Sexual Rights and Reproductive Health
* Global Action Network is an Internet portal and network of young reproductive healthcare activists. It provides mentoring and support to young leaders in dozens of countries all over the world.
* The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) links national autonomous Family Planning Associations (FPAs) in over 180 countries worldwide. It is registered as a charity in the United Kingdom and is the largest voluntary organization in the world to be concerned with family planning and sexual and reproductive health. IPPF and its member associations are committed to promoting the right of women and men to decide freely the number and spacing of their children and the right to the highest possible level of sexual and reproductive health. They believe that the balance between the world's population and its natural resources and productivity is a necessary condition for improving the quality of life on the planet. The IPPF has a number of international youth programs.

* ECPAT is a network of organizations and individuals working together for the elimination of child prostitution, child pornography and trafficking of children for sexual purposes.
* Established in 1980 as the Center for Population Options, Advocates for Youth (AFY) champions efforts to help young people make informed and responsible decisions about their reproductive and sexual health. Advocates believes it can best serve the field by boldly advocating for a more positive and realistic approach to adolescent sexual health. Advocates for Youth envisions a society that views sexuality as normal and healthy and treats young people as a valuable resource. AFY offers programs like the following: www.youthresource.com — support for gay, lesbian, bisexual & transgender (GLBT) youth, www.themediaproject.com - information for the entertainment industry, www.youthshakers.org — support for international youth activists, www.ambientejoven.org — information and community for Latino GLBT youth, www.youthHIV.org — HIV prevention and support for HIV-positive youth, www.mysistahs.org — holistic sexual health resources by and for young women of color.
* Global March Against Child Labor is a movement borne out of hope and the need felt by people across the globe - the desire to set children free from servitude. The Global March movement began with a worldwide march which started on January 17, 1998, and touched every corner of the globe. It culminated at an ILO conference in Geneva with a declaration which was adopted a year later. The partners of the movement form an effective network around the world who lobby governments in their regions. The Global March International Secretariat is located in New Delhi, India and has now begun a crusade to make education available for all.
* The IAAH is a multidisciplinary, non-government organization with a broad focus on youth health. It evolved out of the 4th International Symposium on Adolescent Health held in Sydney, Australia in 1987 with formal Articles approved in July, 1991 during the 5th Congress in Montreux, Switzerland. Official Non-Government Organization (NGO) status with the World Health Organization was granted in 1991. IAAH supports the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) and is committed to the principles of youth empowerment in all aspects of its affairs. Youth are defined as being young persons, including adolescents, between 10-24 years of age. Events or activities co-sponsored by IAAH must address the health issues of that age group; be multidisciplinary; include meaningful youth participation; and be conducted in a youth friendly manner.
* The International Organization for Adolescents is committed to advancing the health and well-being of adolescents throughout the world. By entering into partnerships with individuals, groups and community-based organizations, IOFA strives to improve the lives of young people through programming, advocacy and progressive social/organizational change at the local, regional and international levels.
* The World Youth Alliance is a lobby group that promotes the dignity of the person at the international level and seeks to promote anti-abortion legislation. It has trained more than 500 young people to participate in conferences at the United Nations and the European Union.
13.3 Defending Children and Youth Rights
* Covenant House, known as Casa Alianza in Central America and Europe, is an independent, non profit organization dedicated to the rehabilitation and defense of runaway and street children in Central America. In North America it is dedicated to providing shelter and service to homeless and runaway youth. In Europe it is dedicated to fundraising for Central America and lobbying for children and youth rights.
http://www.casa-allianza.org and http://www.covenanthouse.org
* Kids Can Free the Children is a unique international youth organization that empowers young people through representation, leadership and action. Over the past six years, Kids Can Free the Children has become the largest network of children helping children in the world with over 100,000 youth involved in more than 35 countries. It was started by a 12-year-old boy named Craig Kielburger and has helped create dozens of schools in developing countries through the volunteer energy of young people in developed countries.
* The Child Labor Coalition (CLC) is a coalition of nongovernmental organizations, associations, federations, state labor departments, clubs and community groups, labor unions, and individual activists. More than 50 national and international organizations are members. The mission of the Child Labor Coalition is to create a network for the exchange of information about child labor, provide a forum and a unified voice on protecting working minors and ending child labor exploitation. The CLC also works to develop informational and educational outreach to the public and private sectors to combat child labor abuses and promote progressive initiatives and legislation.
* Youth Advocate Program International works with and for young people worldwide, giving voice and visibility to new ways of improving the lives of children in the 21st century. Our program priorities include advocacy, education and youth participation. We serve as an information clearinghouse, targeting urgent and emerging issues such as the use of child soldiers, child slavery and the execution of youthful offenders. Located in Washington, DC, YAP International educates decision makers and coordinates activities with other advocacy groups and youth-serving organizations.
13.4 Youth with Disabilities
* Mobility International was founded in 1982 to defend the rights of disabled people. Since that date it has organized over 500 international projects aimed at all people with a disability, regardless of their nationality, age or type of disability as well as training courses for those working for or living with them. Mobility International works with people of all ages but primarily focuses on young people.
* Blind people of the world are well organized from local to global levels, culminating in the World Blind Union. The Union gathers as a global assembly every four years. In 2000 there was a youth committee. Below is a link to the report of the youth committee and a link to the WBU web site.
World Youth Committee report: http://www.wbuga.org/pages/reports/78979-01.htm and the WBU web site: http://www.wbuga.org
* The International Federation of Hard of Hearing Young People (IFHOHYP) (deaf youth) has existed since 1967 and works mainly to arrange Summer Camps for young hard of hearing, Conferences dealing with different aspect of being hard of hearing in the modern world, training of youth leaders and language-courses especial tailored for hard of hearing young people. The Goal is to help hard of hearing young people to live a better life and enable hard of hearing to participate fully in society.
http://www.ifhohyp.dk , and additional information site: http://www.youth.hear-it.org
13.5 Peace Education, Disarmament, Violence Prevention and Anti-Racism Work
* The Institute for International Mediation and Conflict Resolution (IIMCR) is a Washington, DC based, non-profit, 501(c)(3) institution whose mission is to promote the use of peaceful conflict resolution techniques among a generation of future leaders through the design and implementation of unique programs and services. Since 1996, IIMCR has successfully conducted seven International Symposia in The Netherlands and one Latin American Symposium in Mexico, training over 700 dedicated students and young professionals from over 50 countries.
* Established as a Treaty Organization with its own Charter in an International Agreement adopted by the General Assembly in resolution 35/55 of 5 December 1980, the University for Peace has the mission: "to provide humanity with an international institution of higher education for peace and with the aim of promoting among all human beings the spirit of understanding, tolerance and peaceful coexistence, to stimulate cooperation among peoples and to help lessen obstacles and threats to world peace and progress, in keeping with the noble aspirations proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations".
* The Hague Appeal for Peace Youth Network is dedicated to facilitating collaboration and information sharing among young peace organizers. It also organizes the Global Campaign for Peace Education which demands that every country in the world reform its education system to teach the principles of non-violence, community building, solidarity and other concepts that prevent violence.
* The United Network Of Young Peace Builders (UNOY – formerly United Nations of Youth) is a global network of young leaders dedicated to conflict prevention and peace education.
* The Pax Christi International Youth Forum was established in 1990 to integrate the work of young people in the International Pax Christi Movement. Pax Christi International is a catholic peace and justice movement which was founded in the aftermath of the second World War when a number of French and German citizens decided to take concrete steps to promote reconciliation. Beginning with prayer walks and exchanges between the two countries, it soon became clear that any work for peace needed to be rooted in social and economic justice. In this way, the branches of Pax Christi quickly grew to encompass all issues its members felt were pertinent to them in their quest for a better world. There are now members and affiliated groups all over the world, and the movement works actively in the fields of demilitarization and security, human rights, North-South relations, peace education, peace spirituality, non-violence, integrity of creation and faith, dialogue and reconciliation.
* The Youth Outreach Initiative of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation initiates and supports opportunities for youth to contribute toward a world at peace, free from the threat of nuclear weapons. Guiding principles of the Initiative include a confidence in youth as community leaders, active citizens; a respect for cultural, ethnic, and religious diversity; a belief in nonviolence and a dialogue as a means to resolve conflict.
* The Youth for Peace Network connects youth peace groups and activities from across the globe. It also collects and shares project ideas to motivate youth to take action. It is supported by the World Peace Prayer Society, a non-sectarian, member-supported organization dedicated to spreading the message and prayer "May Peace Prevail on Earth" all over the world.
* International Youth Network Against Racism (IYNAR) is an Internet discussion list of young leaders dedicated to ending racism. It was launched as a result of the United Nations World Conference Against Racism.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/iynar/ & http://groups.yahoo.com/group/wcar-youthsummit
13.6 Environment, Sustainable Development and Resource Conservation
* Youth for Intergenerational Justice and Sustainability is an international network of youth forming projects and study groups on the subjects of economy, ecology, culture, and politics. It identifies itself as a non-political lobby group and believes that sustainability will be achieved as soon as no generation lives at the expenses of the following ones.
* A SEED (Action for Solidarity, Equality, Environment, and Development) is a global organization linking youth groups and individuals on all continents. A SEED was established by young people in 1991 in response to the UNCED Earth Summit proceedings in Rio and aimed to forge alliances among young people committed to social and environmental justice. Since 1992, the A SEED decentralized network has been growing continuously and consists of regional "hubs" located in Europe, Asia, North America, Africa, Latin America and Japan, with various levels of activity.
* The Global Ecovillage Network is a global confederation of people and communities that meet and share their ideas, exchange technologies, develop cultural and educational exchanges, directories, and newsletters and are dedicated to restoring the land and living "sustainable plus" lives by putting more back into the environment than we take out. The network links 15 thousand villages on 6 continents and has a program to facilitate youth exchange and participation.
* The Vegetarian Youth Network is an informal, grassroots, non-professional organization run entirely by, and for, teenagers who support compassionate, healthy, globally-aware, vegetarian/vegan living. The Network is committed to providing support and encouragement to vegetarian youth through programs that emphasize communication. It has links with youth in 25 countries.
* The World Youth Parliament for Water is an initiative of the International Secretariat for Water and its network members. It takes place within the framework of the International Freshwater Year 2003. This Parliament is part of the preparatory phase of activities that will take place in The House of the Citizen and of the Water, where the World Assembly of Water Wisdom will be held during the Third World Water Forum in Kyoto in March 2003. The forum proposes the participation of "future generations" in activities related to the conservation, protection and prudent use of one of our most precious common assets on earth: WATER. Moreover, it is in keeping with an educational process on solidarity and sustainable development.
* The World Water Forum hosts discussions with people from various fields and regions, including water experts, decision makers and NGOs, with the objective of finding new solutions to the urgent water problems of the world. The Youth World Water Forum (YWWF) is a daughter and aims to mobilize a new generation of activism and partnership around this growing global issue.
http://www.ywwf.org and http://www.worldwaterforum.org

* The Earth Restoration Corps was founded in 1988 with the mission to restore the Earth and to offer an answer to the severe environmental challenges impacting the Earth and humanity by empowering the environmental conscience of all people and focusing on the world's youth. It has run several international environmental training programs today has projects in three continents.
* Roots and Shoots is the Jane Goodall Institute's international environmental and humanitarian program for young people. Its mission is to foster respect and compassion for all living things, to promote understanding of all cultures and beliefs and to inspire each individual to take action to make the world a better place for the environment, animals and the human community. All Roots & Shoots members, from pre-K to university, demonstrate their care and concern for living things through service projects in their communities. Roots & Shoots members participate as individuals, in local groups and as part of a global network.
* Global Response empowers people of all ages, cultures, and nationalities to protect the environment by creating partnerships for effective citizen action. At the request of indigenous peoples and grassroots organizations the organization develops urgent international letter campaigns to help communities prevent many kinds of environmental destruction. It involves young people as well as adults in these campaigns to develop in them the values and skills for global citizen cooperation and earth stewardship. The project for teenagers is called Eco-Club Action. In total the network links 5500 activists from 92 countries.
* The World Youth Organization on Climate Change (WYOCC) aims to raise youth and student awareness of and participation in the climate change issue through its network of members around the world. It was created in November 2000 by the 118 Youth Delegates from 61 countries attending, for the first time ever, the World Conference on Climate Change and its official Youth Meeting held in The Hague, Netherlands.
13.6 Indigenous Youth

Indigenous youth are not organized at the global level. Several attempts have been made but their work has not been weaved together.
* The Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Youth Alliance is a partnership of young people from the Americas. It organizers projects and seminars to help defend the rights of indigenous people and bring the wisdom of both cultures in partnership with each other to serve youth, healing, and decolonization.
* The International Indian Treaty Council was founded in 1974 at a gathering by the American Indian Movement in Standing Rock, South Dakota attended by more than 5000 representatives of 98 Indigenous Nations. The IITC supports grassroots Indigenous struggles through information dissemination, networking, coalition building, technical assistance, organizing and facilitating the effective participation of traditional Peoples in local, regional, national and international forums, events and gatherings. In 1977, the IITC became the first organization of Indigenous Peoples to be reorganized as a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) with Consultative Status to the United Nations Economic and Social Council. The youth program of the council aims to strengthen international indigenous youth networks, to organize conferences and training programs, and to incorporate youth voice into council campaigns. The council does directly support a global indigenous youth network but helps create the relationships that are necessary for such a network to develop.
An educational site on indigenous youth:

A partial listing of international indigenous youth resources:
An international discussion list of young indigenous leaders

Four independent international conferences on international indigenous youth organizing:
1) The Oxfam International Youth Parliament convened Indigenous youth leaders from all over the world in Ausralia in 2000.

2) The International Indigenous Youth Conference of 2002 in the Philippines convened indigenous youth from near 25 countries.
The Conference Invitation
The Conference program:
The Conference Declaration:
A Detailed Article about the Conference:

3) 4th and 5th World Indigenous Youth Conferences
Event: http://www.itv.se/boreale/wiyceng.htm
Discussion of an World Indigenous Youth Network: http://www.itv.se/boreale/valkea.htm 2
Manual for an Indigenous Youth Network: http://www.itv.se/boreale/network.htm

4) 1st Circumpolar Youth Conference
2nd Circumpolar Youth Conferenice
13.8 Cultural Youth Movements
* Youth and Music International was founded more than 50 years ago. It is a worldwide network for youth and music that provides young people with greater access to the art, both as performers and listeners, enabling them to develop through music across borders. It links youth national youth and music networks in more than 80 countries and is one of the largest cultural youth organizations in the world.
* IDRIART stands for Initiative for the Development of Intercultural/Transdisciplinary Relations through the Arts. It was born out of recognition that healing forces, inherent in art, must take on a more social role in answer to increasing isolation among people and cultures. For 20 years the movement has been trying to build a creative environment where people from different walks of life and from different countries, of different age, nationality and culture can meet in the atmosphere of arts. “Meeting through the art enables one to learn the art of meeting.” It was founded in 1981 by Miha Pogacnik, a violinist and cultural ambassador of Slovenia. It organizes international programs such as painting workshops for young people and an annual Art and Business conference in Slovenia at Castle Borl. It has also run workshops all over the world from Tibet to the Amazon.
* The World Organization of Young Esperantists (TEJO) is an international non-governmental youth organization founded in 1938, that works to foster peace and intercultural understanding among young people around the world through Esperanto (an invented language). It is active in working on the present-day problems and issues of youth, particularly regarding linguistic and cultural matters. From its headquarters in the Netherlands, it coordinates the efforts of its 40 national affiliates and members in more than 80 countries. TEJO also works in collaboration with regional and international institutions such as the European Youth Forum, UNESCO and the United Nations.
13.9 Youth, Communication and Media Networks and Training Groups
* Focusing on young people and their communities, the mission of the International Debate Education Association is to promote mutual understanding and democracy globally by supporting discussion and active citizenship locally. IDEA offers students and teachers the opportunity to examine issues affecting their lives and their communities. Participants come to recognize that free and open discussion is essential to the establishment and preservation of open and democratic societies. IDEA is an independent membership organization of national debate programs and associations and other organizations and individuals that support debate. IDEA provides assistance to national debate associations and organizes an annual international summer camp. Since 1994 IDEA has introduced debate to secondary schools and universities throughout Central and Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, Central Asia, the United States, Venezuela, Australia and Haiti and continues to grow throughout the world. IDEA also coordinates curriculum development, maintains international educational contacts, fundraisers and organizes other international events.

* Young Media Partners (YMP) is an international membership association of young journalists (ages 15 to 25) in broadcast, print and electronic media, who are committed to using their skills to build a world of peace, social justice and equality. YMP was established as a Swiss-based not-for-profit association in the spring of 1997 with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. YMP's mission is threefold: 1) to provide young journalists the information, knowledge, training, resources and communication networks necessary for developing their media competence and professionalism; 2) to assist them in developing media products that encourage greater cooperation, tolerance, and a sense of global citizenship among young audiences; 3) to promote greater acceptance of young journalists' contributions in the mainstream media, as well as ensuring an outlet through YMP's own newswire service and audiovisual productions. It has 10 bureaus around the world in 10 different countries.
http://www.comminit.com/pds7-2001/sld-2438.html and youngmedia@youthlink.org
* Global Action Project, Inc. is a media arts organization that provides training in video production and new media technologies for youth both locally and internationally. In collaboration with regional organizations it works in diverse areas of the world to produce videos. The producers are peer educators. They benefit from their interactions with international cultures and learn from screening and workshops that highlight connections between local and global issues. The programs have taken place in Croatia, Northern Ireland, Ghana, Guatemala and the Middle East.
* Global Nomads Group (GNG) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting global education through videoconferencing and interactive broadcasting. We partner with educators to conduct collaborative learning projects that encourage cross-cultural dialogue and reflections on the global issues that affect our lives.
* Young PRESS is a collaboration among more than 20 youth-run and youth-focused organizations in media, technology and education. It was designed to provide a collaborative model to strengthen youth media and reach across the digital divide using both new and old technologies. The network encompasses audio, text, video and TV, including satellite and internet-based conferencing. The project was prepared to be launched as a Pilot Project at the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Children and Children's Forum to be held in New York, September 16th-21st. Due the terrorist attacks on the United States, the Special Session was postponed for six month and the Young PRESS project slowed down. Today is run over the Internet to cover global issues from the reporting perspective of children and youth. Young PRESS is a project "in progress."
* In 2000 the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and several partners launched a program to train youths to become young journalists at the service of biodiversity. The program aimed to train an international corps of young reporters to be dispatched to cover major events ranging from conferences on climate change and forest conservation to the Olympics and environmental trade fairs. They only participated in two events during that year, both organized by the IUCN. In 2002 they reported about the WSSD in South Africa.
http://www.iucn.org/info_and_news/gyrp , WSSD Coordinator: Mirza Delibegovic, mirzadelibe@hotmail.com
13.10 Other Theme and Issue Focused Youth Groups
* The International Movement ATD Fourth World is an intergenerational movement dedicated to overcoming extreme poverty through training of youth. Its goal is to foster partnership with families in persistent poverty and other citizens. It was founded in France in 1957 by Father Joseph Wresinski who grew up in poverty himself. Today, the International Movement ATD Fourth World has a full-time Volunteer Corps with teams in 20 countries and correspondents in 90, actively involving some 100,000 people worldwide. Many weekend and week-long workshops, workcamps and other gatherings are organized. At these, young people can get training, share their ideas and give each other more strength to able to continue the fight against poverty in their daily lives.
* Global Youth Connect was born in 1997 when young people and leaders in the fields of human rights and genocide prevention gathered together, intent on finding new ways to prevent the crimes against humanity then ravaging the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and other zones of conflict around the world. As a result, a group of international young activists bonded together to build an organization whose goal would be to prevent such atrocities from occurring in the first place. GYC has developed an international young activist learning community and organized an overseas trip for young activists. It also produces occasional email newsletters about resources for youth activism.
* Youth Ending Hunger (YEH) is a youth organization within Hunger Free World, a Japanese NGO that aims to create a world free from hunger. Its network is active in 11 countries. Youth who take the leadership positions in YEH must be between 15 to 24. From 1991 to 2001 YEH organized 10 Global Youth Conferences in which members from various parts of the world met and discussed global strategies to end hunger. The group runs projects on the ground in developing countries and does lobbying on HIV/AIDS in every member country. YEH-Japan funds the projects on the ground pays for the administration costs of the YEH movements in developing countries.
* The International Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Youth Organization (IGLYO) was created in 1984 as a reaction to the need for better co-operation among regional, local or national lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) youth and student organizations. It is an important meeting point and LGBT youth rights stronghold in the European region.
http://www.iglyo.org or http://groups.yahoo.com/group/iglyo_members
* The TakingITGlobal ICT Network believes that young people can and are harnessing the power of information and communications technologies (ICTs) to assure opportunity, empowerment, and inclusion for all. The network provides an opportunity for young people to meet each other, collaborate, and share advice to improve their ICT-related activities. It also serves as a conduit through which young people can be recognized by and become involved with national and international initiatives that pursue any of the following four goals: 1. Create and provide access to ICT infrastructure. 2. Develop content for various media. Provide ICT training to marginalized groups. And 4. Provide ICT policy advice to governments and funding agencies.
* The Space Generation Summit was a two and a half day meeting of approximately 200 international young delegates for the purpose of refining and articulating the vision of young people on the future utilization and exploration of space by humanity. It was held in conjunction with the World Space Congress - the largest gathering of space scientists for a decade - and builds on the work of the Space Generation Forum of the Third UN Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. The SGS took full advantage of the unique opportunities that WSC offers to present a unified global youth vision on space issues to world leaders.
14. General Networking and Facilitation
* The Youth Workshop of the Alliance for a Responsible and United World is a loose network of young facilitators dedicated to organizing events, sharing information, and preparing for challenges that youth face in the world. The Alliance is global network of citizens groups dedicated to strengthening civil society participation in global decision-making.
* Emerging Practitioners in Philanthropy is a newly established national network of young professionals and people involved in the work of organized philanthropy. Membership includes staff, trustees, donors, students and others who are involved in philanthropy and interested in connecting with a peer group to promote a social justice agenda and provide youth leadership within the philanthropic sector. The network membership is largely from the United States but it is developing international relationships.
http://www.epip.info and http://www.foundationsforchange.org/epip.htm
* The International Young Professionals Foundation (IYPF) is a not-for-profit public company working in the fields of human rights, poverty eradication, environment and social capital, within the broad context of sustainability. It utilizes and promotes the resources, skills and knowledge that Young Professionals can bring to this arena in order to create a better world for current and future generations. The Foundation's vision is "A global community of Young Professionals creating a better world for current and future generations through local and global action". The IYPF works with young professionals to generate solutions to the challenges faced in creating a better and brighter future for all and to support and facilitate projects emanating from this process.
* Leadership for Environment and Development (LEAD) is an international network of professionals committed to sustainable development. Its 1200 members from nearly 70 countries are drawn from business, media, public sectors, academia and non-government organizations. The LEAD network was set up in 1991 by The Rockefeller Foundation. LEAD's aim is to create and sustain a global network of emerging and working leaders ready and willing to address environment and development challenges in different countries.
* Pioneers of Change is an emerging, self-organizing, global learning community of committed, young people, in their mid-20's to early 30's, from diverse cultural, social, and professional backgrounds. Pioneers of Change numbers over 1000 individual pioneers in over 70 countries, who have made a personal commitment to continuous learning and contribution. Pioneers organize in learning teams, project groups, and local networks as part of the flexible structure of the organization. A series of learning programs form the core of our activities.
* Re-evaluation Counseling (also known as Co-Counseling) is an international movement where people of all ages and of all backgrounds learn how to exchange "effective help" with each other in order to free themselves from the effects of past distress experiences. They are well organized internationally, even with their youth.
International Reference Person for youth: http://www.rc.org/lists/young.html , International Reference Person for young adults: http://www.rc.org/lists/young-adults.html , Page on youth: http://www.rc.org/present_tense/liberation/young/ , Internet portal for the movement: http://www.rc.org
15. Youth Groups and Networks focused on Youth Participation in Decision-Making and Activism
15.1 Supporting Youth Activism
* Oxfam's International Youth Parliament is a network of young leaders in 150 countries with a vision of "youth building an equitable, sustainable and peaceful world." It organized an inaugural conference in October of 2000 and continues to provide the participants with support to implement individual action plans that they developed. The website provides training materials ranging from time management to fundraising. The IYP secretariat is currently examining the impact of globalization on youth.
* JustAct is a national, nonprofit organization promoting youth leadership and action for global justice. Founded by students in 1983 as the Overseas Development Network, the organization has been a forum for thousands of young people to address global issues such as social inequity, human rights, and environmental sustainability. JustAct's mission is to develop in young people a life-long commitment to social and economic justice around the world, by providing a network linking students and youth to learning opportunities and to grassroots movements working for equitable, sustainable, and self-reliant communities. JustAct encourages more young people to examine the forces at work that truly contribute to injustice and inequality in the world. While providing relief and addressing the immediate needs of families and communities in distress are essential, we know that it is only by dealing with the root causes of social and economic inequality at home and abroad that the need for charity will one day diminish.
* Youth Leaders International is a two year youth leadership training program. It works in near a dozen countries on four continents. The program was started in 1996. It works with young people from 13 to 15-years-old, brings them to a international leadership conference, challenges them to develop a service project, live in another country, make a plan for their future, mentor a younger student, and ultimately participate in a life skills training program.
* Leaders Today is dedicated to helping young people realize their fullest potential through leadership education and development using innovative, youth inspired curriculum. Marc and Craig Kielburger founded Leaders Today with a common vision to empower youth to become socially involved and their inspirational work has been profiled on Oprah, 60 Minutes and Much Music as well as in The New York Times, YM, Time for Kids and Seventeen, among many others. Leaders Today administers one, two and five day workshops around the world, holds annual leadership training academies, and facilitator training programs. It also organizes overseas volunteer trips to Latin America, Africa, and Asia. It helps young people reach their fullest potential through leadership education and development using an innovative, youth inspired curriculum. Marc and Craig Kielburger founded Leaders Today with a common vision to empower youth to become socially involved.
* Peace Child is an international organization which empowers young people to inform themselves and take action on major world issues. Since its founding in 1982 it has grown to include over 500 youth groups in 120 countries. Registered in the UK as an educational charity, Peace Child has consultative status at the UN for which they have done many projects.
* NASYM is an umbrella organization formed by 98 national youth and students organizations from different parts of the world that support the concept of the Non-Aligned Movement. NASYM's objectives are: to work with students and young people towards the aims and ideals of universality; to strive for national liberation, for economic, social and cultural justice, for equality among nations, for cooperation among nations and peoples, and against all sorts of oppression and repression.
http://www.uruklink.net/nasyo (The site seems to have expired, though it can be retrieved via Google's cache http://www.google.com.br/search?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&q=+site:www.uruklink.net+nasyo ) , nasyo@uruklink.net
* YDC is an international youth organization whose aims are to strengthen youth structures working on North-South cooperation in order to promote development, the protection of the environment, international justice and cooperation. In its efforts to bridge the gap between North and South, YDC sets up programs for the purpose of development education and political campaigning on North-South issues. The activities are wide ranging and include seminars, workshops, training courses, campaigns, publications, simulation games and research on development questions. The network has 66 member youth organizations including local grassroots organizations, national NGOs and international institutions. It also works with an additional 40 institutions as organizational partners.
* World Youth Service and Enterprise (WYSE) is an international training program. It gathers young people for two week intensive leadership programs, that are conducted by a team of international educators. Participants learn that to effectively lead others, they must first know themselves. The curriculum includes many individual and group experiences to help participants explore their leadership qualities. WYSE has consultative status with the United Nations.
* The Common Futures Forum (CFF) was a unique initiative set up to promote and support new forms of social leadership and activism by linking young social entrepreneurs from around the world who were innovators at community, national and international levels. It was run by the Global Meeting of Generations project of the International Development Conference (IDC) in Washington, DC. After a number of global gatherings and network building, over the course of a few years, the IDC developed internal problems and no longer exists today. A web archive of the CFF still exists, providing information about the institution that no longer has root.
* The Emerging Leaders Program was initiated in 1995 to expand youth participation throughout the Forum's activities and to facilitate youth-adult partnerships. Since 1995, over 1000 young people from more than 80 nations have participated in Forum events and initiatives. In January 1999 the Monterrey Institute of Technology hosted the first State of the World Forum for Emerging Leaders. Strategic partnerships were developed with leading youth organizations such as AIESEC, Pioneers of Change, Common Futures Forum, Peace Child, Youth for Environmental Sanity, Emerging Leaders Network, and others, and in 2000, was constituted as its own network of the same name. The proposed Internet site and structure of this independent youth network was never came into reality and today only lose relationships exist between those who participated in the network. The online network of the State of the World Forum can be accessed through the password protected site of http://www.favors.org but the only remaining site on the internet for this network is that on the SoWF website, below:
15.2 Youth-Led Groups with Focus on Youth Participation in the United Nations and its World Conferences
* The Conference of NGOs (CONGO) is an international, not-for-profit membership association that facilitates the participation of NGOs in United Nations debates and decisions. Founded in 1948, CONGO's major objective is to ensure the presence of NGOs in exchanges among the world's governments and United Nations agencies on issues of global concern. CONGO is most active in the major UN centers of New York, Geneva, and Vienna, but extends its work to all regions of the world. The Youth Advisory Committee to the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations (CONGO YAC) is a new programme currently under development that aims to increase the involvement of young people in the United Nations. The new Youth Advisory Committee aims to 1) consider the problems facing young people, particularly relating to youth involvement at the UN; 2) recruit youth representatives for CONGO Committees; 3) provide perspectives on youth issues and a youth perspective on other issues; and, 4) make recommendations to CONGO on how to provide meaningful access, participation and a voice to young people at the UN.

* The International Student Movement for the United Nations (ISMUN) used to be a strong youth presence at the United Nations. In the face of years of decreasing activities the United Nations Youth and Student Organization of Austria gathered ISMUN constituents. Together they decided to dissolve ISMUN and created a new organization, in partnership with World Federation of United Nations Associations (WFUNA), to be called the World Federation of United Nations Youth and Student Associations. The project is still in development.
* Peaceways - Young General Assembly is an international non-profit organization which presents conferences and activities worldwide through which young people can activate their human potential and direct their energies globally and locally in a peaceful and responsible way.
* THIMUN Youth Assembly is a project that brings the wisdom and contributions of young people in the Model United Nation's movements to the United Nations world forums and other international conferences. It is one of the only channels that provides individual young people with direct access to these forums.
* The World Assembly of Youth gathers the National Youth Councils of more than 100 countries. It organizes regional seminars, facilitates information sharing, and is one of the largest representative bodies of youth before the United Nations.
* Youth for Habitat International Network is an umbrella organization operating at the international level through a Secretariat with focal points and resource persons in every region. It was created with the aim of coordinating youth participation in the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) held in Istanbul, from 3-14 June 1996, which was the last UN Summit of the millennium. Youth Association for Habitat and Agenda 21 (YFHIN-Turkey) is serving as the secretariat of the network and implementing projects for Habitat Agenda and Agenda 21 at the national level. The Network continues its endeavor of involving the youth in the follow-up process through international projects and networking. Draft program of the youth program of the Special session of the UN General Assembly on the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda: http://www.unhabitat.org/istanbul+5/pe26.htm
* The United Nations Special Session on Children was held 8-10 May, 2002. It was a meeting of the UN General Assembly dedicated to the children and adolescents of the world. It brought together government leaders and Heads of State, NGOs, children's advocates and young people themselves at the United Nations secretariat in New York in 2002. It enjoyed the participation of more than 1,400 delegates, representing approximately 800 NGOs as well as government and private sector representatives. More than 100 countries brought youth delegates who were under 20-years-old.
The official website for the event was: http://www.unicef.org/specialsession/ A separate ongoing emailing list links some of the young delegates: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ungassyouth/
15.3 Youth Participation in Global Decision-Making and/or Events Outside the UN System
* In 1992 the World Economic Forum developed a special community called "Global Leaders for Tomorrow" (GLTs). The community, through its programs, aims to create and engage a global network of young business and non-business leaders, dedicated to working together in areas of social and environmental development and entrepreneurship. It is one of the few forums that provides young people with direct access to world's most powerful decision-makers.
* The Intercontinental Youth Camp of the World Social Forum is the world's largest gathering of young people and social movements dedicated to creating global alternatives to the extant form of global decision-making and neo-liberal economics. In 2003 near 30,000 participants gathered from more than 100 countries in Brazil. Hyderabad, India, will host the January 2004 World Social Forum Youth Camp.
In Brazil: http://www.juventudefsm.org, and in India: http://www.youth4wsf.org
* The Global Youth Alliance is a global network of individuals from around the world and a spectrum of disciplines engaging in a far-ranging, non-partisan and comprehensive assessment of the major developments shaping our future and, in a unique multi-disciplinary approach, seeking solutions to the fundamental challenges facing humanity in the 21st Century. According to its website it has one national chapter, Ghana.
* Global Metro City - The Glocal Forum is a non-profit organization dedicated to the promotion of inter-city relations in pursuance of a new balance between global and local forces in today's world. With the belief that youth have a pivotal role to play in building the future, the Glocal Forum has initiated a Glocal Youth Parliament (GYP) as an inter-city vehicle for youth empowerment. The GYP brings together youth from cities around the world to develop tomorrow's urban agenda.
* Group 21 is a non-governmental project whose main aim is to educate and empower young people for the coming century. The men and women of the group are volunteers of varying ages and nationalities, most of whom are associated with universities and educational institutions. In 1997, Group 21 organized a project that brought together young people from twenty-one countries of the world to express the concerns of youth regarding their future at the COP3 Conference on Global Warming in Kyoto. Group 21 continues to organize workshops, community meetings and public forums on issues of critical concern to the world's future. Group 21 has no religious or political affiliations.
* The World Movement for Democracy organized its second global assembly in Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2000 and recommended the creation of a Global Network of Young Democracy Activists. The next assembly will be in South Africa in April 2003.
* The World Congress of Youth is a Canadian based initiative making a fresh attempt to improve representation of youth at the global level.
16. Religious and Spiritual Groups

Many religions and spiritual movements are listed here. Many are not. Only those movements that have websites and programs for youth are listed.

* The Interfaith Youth Core is an international network of young people from different religions who come together for service projects and interfaith sharing. IFYC programs integrate intercultural encounter, social action and interfaith reflection. They include local service projects, international exchanges, conference organizing and facilitation, and a sacred stories project. They were created in 1999 the help of various other global interfaith organizations.
16.1 Christianity
16.1.1 Catholics
* World Youth Day is an international event for young people from every continent and nation to gather with Pope John Paul II every second year in a different location around the world. The celebration brings together Catholic young adults from over 150 countries to learn about their faith and celebrate it.
* More than 50 years ago the Catholic Church supported the creation of three movements to cover all categories of youth, namely students, young workers, and rural youth. The International Movement of Catholic Agricultural and Rural Youth. MIJARC gathers youth from the rural world in four continents. It uses a participatory approach, working with youth, considering their realities, and taking action to build the future they want. Gender issues and rural issues present challenges. According to the principle of "see, judge, act", organizers determine their priorities, participate in the development of society, and fulfill our responsibilities as citizens by promoting sustainable development for the future. They advocate staying in villages and developing of the rural world in economic, social, cultural and religious domains.
* The International Movement of Catholic Students (IMCS) and the International Young Catholic Students (IYCS) collaborate to a common aim of organizing Catholic youth throughout the world. The ICMS aims to gather and represent a6ll legitimate forms of catholic organizations in the universities around the world. The IYCS aims to be a movement of Catholic Action, education, evangelization of students and emphasizes the importance of grass-roots teams as the basic cell of student communities.
* FIMCAP is an International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements. The abbreviation FIMCAP comes from the original title : "Fédération International des Mouvements Catholiques d'Action Paroissale". Today, 36 organizations of 27 countries in 4 continents make up whole of FIMCAP. It is a federation gathering Catholic children's and youth organizations not relating to a specific professional group, but having all children and young people - being in parishes or not - as target group. The organizations affiliated to FIMCAP aim to bring children and young people together in groups during their leisure time. Every few years FIMCAP helps organize World Youth Day, the world's largest youth event – organized by the Catholic church.
16.1.2 Other Christian Groups
* The Young Christian Workers began in Laeken, Belgium, in 1912, when astounding economic advances co-existed with desperate misery. Today this movement organized into national groups covering 50 countries on all continents. The first objective is to allow young workers, including those who are unemployed or studying, to discover their dignity as men and women. This is done through training, where young people assume the responsibility for finding solutions to their own situations at local, national and international levels. The second objective is to promote inter-religious dialogue, and create an intercultural society of solidarity.
* Global Fellowship unites Christian youth organizations in over 60 countries around the world. The member organizations, in their own countries, provide a framework for fellowship and informal learning for thousands of children and young people. The object of Global Fellowship is the advancement of "Christ's Kingdom," the promotion of education and the relief of poverty amongst the youth of the world, by serving and supporting member organizations.
* The World Council of Churches youth web site seeks to strengthen the ecumenical youth movement and young people's solidarity networks, promote ecumenism and the search for Christian unity among young Christians. This is a place where young people across cultures and across confessions can meet, discuss, share and learn from each other, as well as from the information provided on the site.
* The Church of Latter Day Saints, or Mormons, do not have an international independent youth network. Instead the following site links all of the Mormon missions around the world.
http://www.mission.net and a discussion group of young Mormons http://groups.yahoo.com/group/yw-ym/
* Mennonite World Conference (MWC) is an international fellowship of Christian churches who trace their beginning to the 16th-century Radical Reformation in Europe, particularly to the Anabaptist movement. Today, more than 1,200,000 believers belong to this faith family; at least 55 percent are African, Asian, or Latin American. MWC represents 87 Mennonite and Brethren in Christ national churches from 48 countries on five continents. They will organize their first global youth summit in 2003.
* Quaker.org (an Internet portal for Quakers) keeps a listing of Quaker youth groups from all over the world.
* SYNDESMOS, the World Fellowship of Orthodox Youth, is a federation of Orthodox youth movements and theological schools around the world, working under the blessing of all the local canonical Churches, to serve the Church. The aim of SYNDESMOS is to develop cooperation and communication among Orthodox youth movements and theological schools around the world, and to promote within them a deeper understanding and vision of their common faith.
* The World Student Christian Federation calls students to live out the "Good News of the Gospel of Jesus Christ," providing a meeting place for students across boundaries of culture, race, and denomination. It is a space for leadership development, empowerment of women, a critique of higher education in the context of globalization, the development of alternatives to globalization, as well as the exploration of a theology and spirituality rooted in the hopes and struggles of students worldwide. Over a century ago, the World Student Christian Federation began providing a meeting place for young Christians from all churches and nations. Students from ten North American and European countries established the WSCF in 1895 at Vadstena Castle, Sweden. Key founders include John R. Mott (USA) and Karl Fries (Sweden). Historically, WSCF is the first international student organization and, together with YMCA and YWCA, it is among the oldest youth movements. Throughout it's rich and active history, the Federation played a fundamental role in both the modern missionary and ecumenical movements. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, WSCF encouraged students to engage actively in the work of spreading the gospel, emphasizing the importance of mutual communication, cooperation, and challenge with the mainline institutional churches. The Federation has and continues to work for unity in the church and in the world.
* The First Church of Christ, Scientist (the global organization of Christian Scientists) is a religion that believes people should not be attended by doctors. The portal site for the religion includes a listing of Christian Science Organizations at Universities. The universities are the chief organizing centers and networking hubs of Christian Scientist youth.
16.2 Islam
* World Assembly of Muslim Youth is an international Islamic organization dealing especially with youth affairs and embracing over 450 Islamic youth students organizations in five continents.
* The Ismaili youth homepage seeks to facilitate unity between the world wide Shia Imami Ismaili community, to share information, to develop a support system for Ismaili Youth in different cultural environments. It links youth from five continents as individuals as well as student associations.
* Sufi Youth International, as a department of the International Association of Sufism, was created to develop and expand an international support network for youth that encourage youth to explore the spiritual and value questions of life. SYI serves as a forum designed to support youth who seek to incorporate spirituality into their everyday lives and are dedicated to creating an ethical society for humanity.
16.3 Judaism
* The World Union of Jewish Students (WUJS) was founded in 1924 and works closely with the World Jewish Congress, the representative body of Jewish communities around the world. WUJS links 200 groups in several dozen countries around the world. It organizes various campaigns, leadership training programs, seminars, and major international events.
* The BBYO is the largest Jewish movement in the world, with chapters in the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Holland, and South Africa. It provides opportunities for leadership development among Jewish youth and promotes a positive sense of Jewish identity. The BBYO uses adult supervisors and professional staff, but youth often play important roles within the organization.
16.4 Others
* The Baha'i International Community links people of the Baha'i faith from all over the world. Young people are supported to be community organizers. The following section of their website documents and maps the story of the Baha'i youth movement. http://www.bahai.org/article-1-9-2-8.html This following site links Bahai youth communities and youth workshops.
* The Brahma Kumaris faith have a global program to support youth participation in the UN. Here is a link to the program and to BK centers around the world.
http://www.bkwsu.com/bkun/youth and http://db.bkwsu.com/index.cfm
* Freemason youth organization on an international level through DeMolay. DeMolay is an organization dedicated to preparing young men to lead successful, happy, and productive lives. Basing its approach on timeless principles and practical, hands-on experience, DeMolay opens doors for young men aged 12 to 21 by develop the civic awareness, personal responsibility, and leadership skills so vitally needed in society today. DeMolay combines this serious mission with a fun approach that builds important bonds of friendship among members in more than 1,000 chapters worldwide.
* Eckankar (ECK) youth are organized only on local levels. Most regions have an ECK youth representative and an ECK youth adviser who can help youth find out about relevant study classes, workshops, seminar programs, or other activities to take part in. Here are links to the regional centers and to the youth page of their website.
http://www.eckankar.org/Youth and http://www.eckankar.org/ekcenters.html
* Moral Re-Armament is a global network of people from all cultural, political, religious and economic backgrounds. They work together to build peace by helping people take personal responsibility, have honest conversations, examine the role of history in world affairs, and engage in personal reflection. The movement began in the UK in 1938. In 1998 and independent group of young people in the movement created the Moral Re-Armament global network to facilitate communication and collaboration. They organize exchange programs and various seminars in different countries through the world, mostly in North America, Europe, and Asia.
* The Hindu Students Council (HSC) is an international forum that provides opportunities to learn about Hindu heritage through various activities, events and projects. HSC presents ample opportunities for self-development at the spiritual and professional level. It organizes activities such as campus study groups, classes and symposia, seminars, lectures and workshops. It also organizes a Global Hindu Youth Activities Network.
* Yuva Shakti, is the youth organization dedicated to Sahaja Yoga consisting of enlightened youth. They participate in the collective meditation and other Sahajayoga activities in addition to the academic programs. Developing and promoting youth activities is an important part of Sahaja Yoga. The movement does not have a global youth secretariat but below are links to groups all over the world.
* Young people of the Sikh religion used to be well organized on the international level through the International Youth Sikh Federation. It has since been de-organized and now needs re-articulation. The following sites provide some links to local and national Sikh youth communities around the world. 1) The International Institute of Gurmat Studies has organized gurmat camps for young Sikhs around the world for the past thirty years. http://www.iigs.org 2) This Sikh portal gives a comprehensive listing of youth Sikh organizations around the world. http://www.sikhseek.com/Youth 3) And finally, this organization, the Sikh Network is a network of Sikh young adults organized as local chapters across North America, Europe and India. Its mission is to promote the spiritual and political growth of the Sikh Nation through personal and collective development. The focus of the Sikh Network is to educate both the Sikh community as well as the community at large.
* The objectives of the youth wing, Subud Youth Association International, (SYAI), are to help young people develop their talents, identify direction for their life work, and assist them with planning and taking steps toward their field of studies and careers. It organizes activities and programs run by, with, and for young people to meet their needs and interests. It aims to facilitate international communication between youth of all nations and cultures.
http://www.subudyouth.org (Also see http://www.subud.org )
* The World Fellowship of Buddhist Youth aims to unite all Buddhist youth in the world. It organizes conferences and provides a content rich site on the Internet for its constituency. It was founded in 1972 and enjoys representation of nearly every school of Buddhism in the Mahayana, Theravada, and Vajrayana traditions.
* WitchVox is a global internet portal for Pagan and Neo Pagan believers as well as followers of indigenous Celtic religions. The site provides a listing of local groups of young people who are interested in Paganism all over the world.
* The World Zoroastrian Organization is the world body of the Zoroastrian (Zarthushti) community from many countries on more than three continents. Well respected Zarthushtis from round the world together helped to establish WZO in 1980. They responded to repeated mandates of the World Zoroastrian Congresses for a world body to protect, unite and sustain this small community in the changing world of tomorrow. A worldwide Youth Wing is being sponsored to build networks, dialogue, social and community bonding and leadership for the community of tomorrow.
* Young Jains of America (YJA) has a mission is to be recognized nationally and internationally as an umbrella Jain youth organization for establishing a network to share Jain heritage and religion through youth.
* The Section for the Spiritual Striving of Youth (Youth Section) exists to connect young people with each other, to support and deepen an understanding of one's self and the world, to encourage initiative, and to help actualize ideas and impulses gained from these activities. The Youth Section is one of eleven sections of the School of Spiritual Science which was founded in Dornach, Switzerland in 1924 by Dr. Rudolf Steiner. The purpose of the school is to perform spiritual scientific research into all the fields represented by the sections and bring the results into practical initiatives that help heal the present world conditions. Towards this purpose, the Youth Section organizes seminars, small study groups and international conferences throughout the world; supports initiatives, facilitates internships, and conducts research on world youth issues. It is connected with the movement of Anthroposophy.
* The Hare Krishna religion has a youth ministry for linking and coordinating youth activities internationally. Their internet site has little content, however.
http://youth.iskcon.net/ and Hare Krishna's around the world http://www.iskcon.org/address
* International Sri Satya Sai Organization: The young adult programs are being established to encourage young adults to lead purposeful lives by learning and practicing spiritual values as defined and established by the life, message, and works of Sathya Sai Baba. Young Adult programs are intended to enhance, not interfere with, harmony and understanding in family relationships and within the Sai Organization. The programs provide forums for Young Adults of like mind to meet and to discuss issues in leading spiritual lives in today's world. In 1999 they organized a World Youth Conference with over 900 participants from dozens of countries (Sahoffer@iupui.edu). This site has contacts for the movement all around the world. http://www.sathyasai.org/organize/content.htm The following two sites below have information about the youth programs of this religion.
Official page: http://www.sathyasai.org/organize/ya/content.htm and the declaration page describing the organizations investment in youth: http://www.osssbi.org/youth.html
* On a local level Unitarian Universalists organize youth leadership training programs. There is no international network linking such local initiatives. A directory of national level groups is linked from this page:
* The Unification Church of Reverend Sun Myung Moon (Moonies) has three programs to support youth. The first is "Religious Youth Service" which provides a forum for youth to put aside doctrinal differences and unite in activities of service. Second is the Youth Seminar on World Religions (YSWR), each summer international and interreligious groups of 150 students and professors travel around the world together, visiting important religious cities and studying at those locations the traditions of Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism and Unificationism. Third is the Youth Federation for World Peace founded Reverend Sun Myung Moon in 1994. The federation is dedicated to the belief that peaceful families are the foundation for peaceful societies, peaceful nations, and a peaceful world. Through its initiatives to inspire youth, the group promotes the values of filial piety, premarital celibacy, marital fidelity, and public service to humanity. Members engage in community service projects around the world. Projects must be appropriate to the needs and diverse perspectives of that culture. To encourage environmental responsibility the federation educates youth to actively protect and reclaim the natural world as both our refuge and our inspiration. Every few years the organization convenes world conferences and enjoys the participation of people from up to 164 countries.
The Unification Church global website: http://www.unification.net and contacts http://www.unification.net/misc/uc_directory.html , Youth Federation for World Peace http://www.yfwp.org
17. Other Movements That Do Not Have Youth Projects, But That Are Often Youth-Led
* RiseUp.net is a radical activist collective that provides online resources for activists. It has recently begun to organize an international network of young techie activists.
* Squat.Net is an international internet magazine that focuses on squatted houses and other free spaces (a squatted house is one that has been invaded by non-native habitatants, often poor people who have no other place to live). Different people, with different backgrounds such as squatters, punks, hackers, etc. work together to collect news and information about the international movement.
* 50 Years Is Enough is a coalition of over 200 U.S. grassroots, women's, solidarity, faith-based, policy, social - and economic- justice, youth, labor and development organizations dedicated to the profound transformation of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The Network works in solidarity with over 185 international partner organizations in more than 65 countries. Through education and action, the Network is committed to transforming the international financial institutions' policies and practices, to ending the outside imposition of neo-liberal economic programs, and to making the development process democratic and accountable. We were founded in 1994, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the World Bank and IMF. We focus on action-oriented economic literacy training, public mobilization, and policy advocacy.
* Peace Brigades International (PBI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) which protects human rights and promotes nonviolent transformation of conflicts. When invited, it sends teams of volunteers into areas of repression and conflict. The volunteers accompany human rights defenders, their organizations and others threatened by political violence. Perpetrators of human rights abuses usually do not want the world to witness their actions. The presence of volunteers backed by a support network helps to deter violence. In this way, we create space for local activists to work for social justice and human rights.

* People's Global Action (PGA) is a network for spreading information and coordinating actions between grassroots movements around the world. These diverse groups share the same opposition to capitalism, and commitment to direct action and civil disobedience as the most effective form of struggle. PGA grew out of the international Zapatista gatherings in 1996 and 1997, and was formed as a space for direct and un mediated contact between autonomous groups. The first conference took place in 1998, when movements from all continents met in Geneva and launched a worldwide coordination of resistance against the global market economy and the World Trade Organization (WTO).
* The Anarchist Black Cross is an international network of activists who want to eliminate prisons. It receives the participation of many young people.
* ATTAC is an international movement lobbying for the democratic control of world financial markets.
* Food Not Bombs is one of the fastest growing revolutionary movements active in North America today and is gaining momentum all over the world. There are over 175 autonomous chapters sharing vegetarian food with hungry people and protesting war and poverty throughout the Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. The first group was formed in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1980 by anti-nuclear activists. Food Not Bombs is an all volunteer organization dedicated to nonviolence.
* The Independent Media Center was established by various independent and alternative media organizations and activists in 1999 for the purpose of providing grassroots coverage of the World Trade Organization (WTO) protests in Seattle. The center acted as a clearinghouse of information for journalists, and provided up-to-the-minute reports, photos, audio and video footage through its website. Today it is a global network of collectively run media outlets dedicated to the creation of "radical, accurate, and passionate telling of the truth." It works in solidarity with people who struggle to improve the world despite the distortions of reality presented by corporate media. It links nearly 80 local independent local networks in six continents.
* Jubilee is a global network of movements campaigning for third world debt relief. An international directory of these groups is visible here:
* Via Campesina is an international movement which coordinates peasant organizations of small and middle-scale producers, agricultural workers, rural women, and indigenous communities from Asia, Africa, America, and Europe. It is an autonomous, pluralistic movement, independent from all political, economic, or other denomination. It is integrated by national and regional organizations whose autonomy is respected. Its origins go back to April 1992, when several peasant leaders from Central America, North America, and Europe got together in Managua, Nicaragua, at the Congress of the National Union of Farmers and Livestock Owners (UNAG). The principal objective of Via Campesina is to develop solidarity and unity in the diversity among small farmer organizations, in order to promote economic relations of equality and social justice; the preservation of land; food sovereignty; sustainable agricultural production; and an equality based on small and medium-scale producers.
* The Rainbow Family is an international movement of people of all ages dedicated to intentional community building, non-violence, and alternative lifestyles. It has no leaders and no organizations. Interested people gather in national forests in countries all over the globe to pray for peace, celebrate nature, and make ritual.
* The International World-Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms (WWOOF) Association is dedicated to helping those who would like to volunteer on organic farms internationally. WWOOF organisations compile a list of organic Host farms that (from time to time) welcome volunteer help.
* Infoshop is an online directory of Anarchist resources. Anarchists believe that governmental rule is oppression. The website has also created a separate youth portal.
18. Other Links
There are many schools, universities, and programs around the world that work internationally. There are 1) programs that study international issues, 2) programs that gather international students, 3) programs that exchange students between countries (universities and highschools), 4) programs that help people find volunteer opportunities in other countries, 5) and programs that help people find jobs in foreign countries. Some organizations fitting these categories are listed in this report. Those that are not listed either lack focus on younger youth (under 25) or not fully global because they serve youth of only one nation or because they cover fewer than three continents.
Many links to such organizations are provided here: http://www.iesabroad.org/info/internationaljobs.htm

University Students

19. Major Global Youth Email Communication Networks

* The Young Internationalist is the oldest, most general, and best known email list for global youth discussions.

* The Millennium Forum gathered 1200 organizations in 2000 to discuss civil society participation in the UN system. About 200 youth participated in the event. The following mailing list was dedicated to follow-up conversation of this group.

* The World Summit on Sustainable Development, Rio +10, conference in Johannesburg had a youth caucus that enjoyed the participation of hundreds of youth organizations from all corners of the world. This mailing list is dedicated to the conversation of those organizations.

* The World Conference against Racism of the UN system was organized in the August of 2001. The following two mailing lists are dedicated to youth networking and communication around the event and the issue.
Youth Forum discussion list: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/wcar-youthsummit
International Youth Network Against Racism discussion list: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/iynar

* The World Assembly of Youth manages one of the largest networks of international communication in the global youth movement.
* International Youth Cooperation (IYOCO) manages a global mailing list of young leaders that are dedicated to peace issues.

* An informal international discussion list of young indigenous leaders can be found at: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/indigenousyouth/

20. Regional Youth Platforms Before the United Nations

Asian Youth Council (AYC)
The Asian Youth Council, established in 1972, is a regional co-ordinating body for youth in the Asia-Pacific region. It is a non-governmental, voluntary organisation seeking to promote peace, goodwill and solidarity among member organisations in order to foster a greater international understanding and respect for the wide variety of rich cultural values within the region. The Secretariat of the organisation is situated at the International Youth Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The main objectives of the AYC are: to recognise the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the basis for its actions; to implement development programmes on the basis of universal, economic, social and political justice; to promote peace, goodwill and solidarity amongst member organisations and Asian nations in order to foster greater international understanding and finally, to assist young people in Asia to focus greater attention on their needs and responsibilities as citizens of democratic societies. The main feature of the Asian Youth Council structure is the General Assembly, which is convened every three years. The assembly is comprised of representatives from all National Committees affiliated to the AYC. Then last but not least, there is the AYC Secretariat, headed by the Secretariat General. The Secretariat acts as the communications and information centre for the AYC as well as co-ordinating the implementation of programmes and activities. The Asian Youth Council, S2, International Youth Centre, Jalan Tenteram Bandar Tun Rzak, Cheras, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel. +603-971 73 73 Fax. +603-971 67 00 E-mail:sallehayc@pd.jaring.my

Arab Youth Union (AYU)
The Arab Youth Union was founded in 1974 and has the following aims and objectives: to seek, defend and protect youth issues represented in political, socio-economic and cultural rights; to defend the fundamental political freedom of Arab youth and promote their democratic rights of organisation, expression and representation on the basis of the AYU’s objectives and to defend Arab youth rights for equal access to education, training, employment, health, housing and proper development. The AYU also encourages youth initiatives aimed at developing the youth movement within the Arab world and supports activities in the fields of technology, science, sports, voluntary service, literature and issues related to the spirit of initiative and creativity among young people. The Arab Youth Union has 33 member organisations and its General Congress meets every 4 years, complemented by a Central Council that meets once a year. The General Secretariat runs the organisation’s daily operations.
The Arab Youth Union, PO Box 12033, Damascus, Syria Tel. +963-11 33 38 012 or + 963-11 33 36 241 Fax. +963-11 33 39 787 E-mail: arabyouthunion@email.com and hmohameddz@hotmail.com

African Youth Network (AYN/RAJ)
The African Youth Network (AYN) was established following the second General Assembly of 'Africa, Caribbean and Pacific - European Union Youth' in December 1995, where it was decided that there was a vital need to establish this type of platform in Africa. AYN brings African young people together to discuss youth policy in areas such as the environment, trade and poverty, through seminars, workshops and regular publications. The organs of the Network are: the General Assembly, the Executive Council, the Permanent Secretariat and the Specialised Committees. Members of the Co-ordination Committee are chosen for a 3 year renewable term of office and consist of senior representatives of the organisation including representatives from the Northern, Southern, Central, Western and Eastern and Indian Ocean Regions of Africa.
The African Youth Network, Permanent Secretariat, B.P. 4522 Lomé, Togo.
Tel. +228-21 78 58 Fax. +228-22 62 62 e-mail: raj_ayn@cafe.tg

Caribbean Federation of Youth (CFY)
Established in 1986, the Caribbean Federation of Youth (CFY) seeks to develop a greater sense of identity amongst youth and to promote the active participation of youth in the social, educational, economic, cultural and political life of the Caribbean. Advocacy, education and training, cultural and dramatic art forms, social integration and entrepreneurial and enterprise development are CFY's key programming areas. CFY's main activities are: an annual regional work-study camp; leadership training projects; regional conferences for youth and representation at regional and international level. The highest decision-making body is the Regional Congress, which meets annually and elects the Executive. The Executive is made up of the President, 2 Vice-Presidents, Secretary/ Treasurer and 2 special Executive assistants. The Executive co-ordinates the organisation's programme and appoints a member of staff to manage the day-to-day running of the Federation’s programme. Membership is comprised of national youth councils of the Caribbean and international NGOs and IGOs and other government organisations.
Caribbean Federation of Youth (CFY), PO Box 1815, Egmont St, Kingstown, St Vincent, West Indies
Tel. +784-485 63 78 Fax. +784-485 66 12/ 4562243 E-mail: cfy@caribsurf.com

European Youth Forum
The European Youth Forum aims to empower young people to actively participate in the shaping of Europe and the society in which they live. Through member organisations and our representative role, it wants to improve the living conditions of young people as European citizens in today's world. The European Youth Forum works for the interests of all young people in Europe. As a platform organisation, it is the representative body for its members towards the institutions and partners active in the youth field. The 89 member organisations of the European Youth Forum represent a wide range of interests: student organisations, political organisations, organisations concerned with environmental protection, minorities, young rural organisations, conscripts organisations and many more. The European Youth Forum has member organisations including both national youth organisations and international youth organisations, drawn from throughout the European continent. The highest decision-making body is the General Assembly, which elects a Bureau made up of volunteers every two years. The Bureau meets monthly to assess political priorities, implement its work plan and advisess the Secretariat in its work.
European Youth Forum 120 Rue Joseph II Straat, B-1000, Bruxelles -Brussel, Belgique - België
Tel. (central) +32-2 2306490 Fax. (central) +32-2 2302123
E-mail: youthforum@youthforum.org

Latin American Youth Forum (FLAJ)
FLAJ was established in 1993 and is the co-ordination body for 8 national youth platforms and 12 international youth organisations from this continent. FLAJ's purpose is to become a vehicle of representation, co-ordination and co-operation between the youth organisations of Latin America. FLAJ exists to empower youth and defend values such as democracy, justice, freedom, respect for self-determination of nations, dignified living conditions, defence of human rights, social equity, life and the environment, as well as the promotion of the Latin American identity. FLAJ members come from both national youth councils and international youth organisations. The highest decision-making body is the General Assembly which meets every two years. The GA chooses the executive committee, composed of four national youth councils and four international youth organisations, and one observer, namely, the organisation's technical Secretariat. The Executive Committee nominates one of its members to carry out the duty of being the executive Secretariat, responsible for day-to-day matters within the organisation.
Foro Latinoamericano de Juventud (FLAJ), Technical Secretariat, c/o Juan Carlos Rodriguez, Foro Juvenil de Uruguay, Calle Maldonado 1260 CP - 11.200, MONTEVIDEO URUGUAY
Tel. +598-290 30 029 Fax. +598-290 27 300 E-mail: canario@forojuvenil.org.uy

Pacific Youth Council (PYC)
The Pacific Youth Council was established in July 1996 and is based within the Pacific Community in Noumea, New Caledonia. PYC is composed of 19 national youth councils. The principle objectives of the organisation are: to bring together the different territorial and national youth organisations that exist in the region in one common organisation and to promote, at all levels, a regional youth identity that takes into account the different cultural, social, economic and political particularities of the states and territories that are members of the PYC. Another key role for the PYC is to encourage co-operation between NGOs, youth NGOs, and governmental organisations- both regional and international- and to promote the participation of youth. The PYC has a Directors Committee made up of eight people. Its next General Assembly is to be supported by a Japanese foundation for peace, known as "Sasakawa".
Pacific Youth Council, B.P. 2684 Noumea, New Caledonia
Tel. +687-28 1505 Fax +687-27 7089 E-mail: acafmepea@hotmail.com

Pan-African Youth Movement (MPJ)
The Pan-African Youth Movement (MPJ) was born on the 26 April 1962 in Conakry, the Republic of Guinea, in the midst of the euphoria of sovereignty being gained in some countries and the radicalisation of the armed struggle in other countries wishing to liberate themselves from the colonial yoke. At its first conference, the MPJ opted to pursue the following objectives: unity of thought and action; sensitisation; informing and mobilising young people to totally free the continent from all forms of foreign domination; the struggle for economic and social independence and cultural rehabilitation of Africa as well as the unity of all peoples - real African unity. The MPJ has, as its decision-making bodies, its Membership Congress which meets once every five years; a Supreme Council of Youth that meets every two years to evaluate the organisation’s work; the Secretariat, the permanent executive body, that has seven members- one Secretariat and six Assistant General Secretaries who are all elected by the Congress. There are also decentralised structures that operate at a regional level thus allowing efficient work to be achieved throughout the continent. Pan-African Youth Movement - Mouvement Panafricain de la Jeunesse
8 Bis, Rue 11 Décembre-ELBIAR, Alger, Algérie
Tel. +213-91 25 43 or 91 33 88 Fax. +213-91 25 43 or 37 17 92 and maybe makhasiy@nyc.pwv.gov.za

21. Regional Student Unions

National Unions of Students in Europe
ESIB - The National Unions of Students in Europe is the umbrella organisation of 50 national unions of students from 37 countries. The NUSes are open to all students in the country regardless of their political conviction, religion, ethnic or cultural origin, sexual orientation, social standing, run and controlled by students, which hold democratic elections and are run on democratic lines, they are autonomous and independent in their decision-making and which are representative. The aim of ESIB is to represent and promote the educational, social, economic and cultural interests of students at a European level towards all relevant bodies and in particular the European Union, Council of Europe and UNESCO. Through its members, the 50 National Unions of Students from 37 European countries, ESIB represents 10 million of students in Europe.

All Africa Student Union
In July, 1972, African Students met at the University of Science and Technology UST Kumasi in Ghana to discuss the issue of bringing together all the students on the continent in order to co-ordinate their efforts towards the socio-economic and political advancement of their continent. That historic meeting laid the foundation of the All Africa Students Union (AASU), a non-Governmental International Students Union. It aims to promote unity among students organisations in and of Africa, based on common objectives and has many programs to support this aim. AASU has 52 member organizatoins from 52 African Countries. Membership is open to any students, organisation that accepts its constitution. There are full members, associate members, and those with consultative status.

Asian Students Association
ASA is an independent and non-aligned regional body of 46 national student organizations from 26 countries in the Asia Pacific region. ASA is working for change on the basis of such concepts as human rights, democracy, development, Third World, and solidarity.
asa@peg.apc.org and asasec@netvigator.com plus other details http://www.takingitglobal.org/opps/orgdir.html?vieworg=1100

Continental Organization of Latin American and Carribean Students (OCLAE)
OCLAE was created in 1966 to act as a mobilizing body for anti-imperialist student movements. It has made significant steps towards strengthening student solidarity in the region, democratizing education, erradicating illiteracy, and defending human rights.

General Union of Arab Students (GUAS)
There is very little content on the Internet regarding the GUAS, in English. It is the gathering point of national student unions of Arab countries in the Middle East.
GUAS, P.O.Box 11812, Syria - Damascus, Tel.: 00963-11-41 73 92, Fax: 00963-11-417392 and bulahi@ajeeb.com